Master Programs in Spain

Find 810 Top Masters Programs in Spain 2017

Master

Spain holds excellence in academics in high regard. As a result, students from all over the world have chosen a Master in Spain for graduate education. In recent years, the educational system in Spain has undergone significant development, creating more opportunities and programs for international students. In addition to high quality programs, students pursuing a Master in Spain can explore this beautiful country and all that is has to offer, such as beautiful beaches, stunning natural landscapes, medieval towns, rugged mountains, dynamic cities, a mild climate, and an interesting mix of cultures.

There are many programs offering a Master in Spain that international students can choose from, some examples being design, business, energy, religious studies, management, fine arts, international development, and education, among many others. Master in Spain programs also offer full-time, part-time and online studies, each having different requirements and lengths depending on the program and university.

Learn more about a Master in Spain below. You may find your education waiting for you!

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Master in International Tourism Management

The Ostelea - School of Tourism and Hospitality International
Campus Full time October 2017 Spain Madrid Barcelona

The Master in International Tourism Management, majoring in Management of International Tourism Destinations, is designed to equip professionals and executives to lead global business projects in the tourism sector. [+]

Masters in Spain 2017. Master in International Tourism Management The Master in International Tourism Management, majoring in Management of International Tourism Destinations, is designed to equip professionals and executives to lead global business projects in the tourism sector. Reasons to take the Master: The spanish version of this master is ranked among the best 100 masters in the world in the Tourism & Hospitality category, according to the Eduniversal Best Masters Ranking Worldwide 2015-2016. The spanish version of this master is the third best Master in Spain. Ostelea is an affiliated member of the World Tourism Organization (WTO). Membership of the WTO guarantees the academic quality of the program. Ostelea is a member of the Asociación Española de Profesionales del Tourism (AEPT – Spanish Association of Tourism Professionals). Professional internships in companies and institutions related to the sector. Participation in sector trade fair: Students from the October session attend the Fitur trade fair (Madrid), considered to be the second most important tourism fair in the world. International faculty: Some of the contents on certain courses will be taught by lecturers from Ostelea’s partner universities and business schools. Objectives The Master in International Tourism Management will give you the following benefits: INSIGHT INTO THE TOURISM INDUSTRY Building a firm knowledge base in the tourism industry from an international perspective and always with an executive approach. GLOBAL VISION Training directors equipped to manage tourism companies and who are able to achieve the expected results at a global level. DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC PLANS... [-]

Masters In Design And Art Direction

Escuela Superior de Diseño de Barcelona
Online Full time 12 months November 2017 Spain Barcelona

With this program you will learn to visualize creative and convincing ideas, as well as understand who you are addressing, the medium in which you communicate the message, and the emotional load that this message must guarantee. [+]

With this program you will learn to visualize creative and convincing ideas, as well as understand who you are addressing, the medium in which you communicate the message, and the emotional load that this message must guarantee. The Art Direction, as an essential part of any commercial communication action, is in constant transformation. The evolution of the media, technology and social networks make it increasingly complex to determine the limits of this discipline. This new environment can confuse the priorities when it comes to becoming a good Director of Art. It is not so much about being the latest in trends or technology, but rather the opposite. From this Master we want to claim why it is so important to know how to tell an idea at a visual level. Why it is basic to understand that behind any communication action there is an intention to influence, excite or convince someone concrete. Why an Art Director can become overshadowed by the superfluous and completely ignore the ultimate purpose of all his work. Art Directors are visualizers of ideas. But for these ideas to be not only creative but convincing, we must understand who we are speaking to, the medium in which we communicate the message and the emotional load that we must guarantee in our messages. The work of the Art Director must respond to this vision. An online Master like the one you are analyzing is the perfect environment to develop such learning. The possibility of forming a vision... [-]

Official Master's Degree In Law And Economics

Instituto Universitario de Investigación Ortega y Gasset
Campus Full time 1 year May 2018 Spain Madrid

This program provides access to the title of University Master's Degree in Economic Analysis of Law from the Complutense University of Madrid. [+]

Masters in Spain 2017. This program provides access to the title of University Master's Degree in Economic Analysis of Law from the Complutense University of Madrid. The credits earned in the Master will be recognized automatically for access to doctoral studies in any university in the European Higher Education Area. Why study this Master? Economic Analysis of Law has become a fundamental working tool for a professional career. This Master will open the doors to a successful career, both work in law firms or consulting firms to serve in positions of government, public bodies or international organizations. It also allows professional development in academia as being an official degree from the Complutense University of Madrid, giving direct access to the development of the doctoral thesis and obtain the degree of Doctor access. This program offers a unique opportunity for interdisciplinary postgraduate studies-and officers-in Law and Economics. Economic Analysis of Law is a relatively new discipline that has gained great importance in the last twenty years. Is an innovative approach that has been taught with growing influence in the most prestigious universities in the world. It is a methodology applied to problems of a legal or institutional nature, principles and reasoning economic, placing special emphasis on efficiency standards, contracts and institutions in general. The Master is primarily intended for graduates in Law, Economics, Political Science and Social Science graduates overall. In short it is an excellent program for graduates of different specialties and profiles who want to train in the applied... [-]

Máster en Organización de Eventos, Protocolo y Turismo de Negocio (MICE) (Barcelona / Part-time)

School of Tourism and Hospitality - The OSTELEA
Campus Part time October 2017 Spain Barcelona Madrid

El Máster en Organización de Eventos, Protocolo y Turismo de Negocio de Ostelea tiene como objetivo formar profesionales y directivos que lideren proyectos empresariales centrados en la planificación y gestión de distintos tipos de eventos (en especial acciones de Meetings, Incentives, Conferences y Exhibitions así como congresos y convenciones, ferias profesionales), dominen los conceptos de protocolo y las estrategias de comunicación y relaciones públicas y generen un desarrollo turístico centrado en el segmento del turismo de negocios de calidad. [+]

Máster en Organización de Eventos, Protocolo y Turismo de Negocio (MICE) El Máster en Organización de Eventos, Protocolo y Turismo de Negocio de Ostelea tiene como objetivo formar profesionales y directivos que lideren proyectos empresariales centrados en la planificación y gestión de distintos tipos de eventos (en especial acciones de Meetings, Incentives, Conferences y Exhibitions así como congresos y convenciones, ferias profesionales), dominen los conceptos de protocolo y las estrategias de comunicación y relaciones públicas y generen un desarrollo turístico centrado en el segmento del turismo de negocios de calidad. Razones para estudiar el Máster: Barcelona como destino de negocios y congresos de primer orden mundial, como el BTravel o el Bridal Week, lo que se aprovecha para la impartición práctica de determinadas asignaturas. Este Máster se imparte en Madrid y Barcelona Gestión de la marca personal: El programa incluye el desarrollo de competencias en el ámbito de la gestión de la marca personal, que inciden en el aprendizaje de técnicas de marketing personal y empleabilidad, con el fin de detectar oportunidades profesionales en España o en otros países. Extenso programa de visitas a ferias, eventos y organizaciones: En el curso 2015/2016 los estudiantes del máster visitaron las ferias IBTM y Alimentaria, el Museo Dalí de Figueres, y la Maratón de TV3, en la que colaboraron con la organización de la campaña contra la obesidad. Objetivos El Máster en Organización de Eventos, Protocolo y Turismo de Negocio te permitirá: CONOCER LA INDUSTRIA MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing y Exhibitions) y el... [-]

Master In Production And Improvement In Industrial Processes

OBS Business School
Online Full time Part time 12 months May 2018 Spain Barcelona Madrid + 2 more

The Master in Production and Industrial Process Improved OBS Business School pays special attention to planning resources, the definition of a good strategy of industrial organization and in product innovation and production processes. In addition, the program along different ways to manage change through projects will be studied by ... [+]

Masters in Spain 2017. Master in Production Management and Process Improvement In industrial companies, the Production Management is a key position whose good management directly impacts the performance of the company and, therefore, is a critical success factor in achieving competitive advantage through continuous innovation in industrial processes . The Master in Production and Industrial Process Improved OBS Business School pays special attention to planning resources, the definition of a good strategy of industrial organization and in product innovation and production processes. In addition, the program along various forms of managing change through projects, with particular emphasis on monitoring and control of production and management skills development will be studied. The program was new in 2014, with great success in its 1st call. The program offers an outstanding range of educational proposals, as Webinars with Danone, Grupo Irizar, Dorje Dondrup, etc. It also incorporates a DISC Development of the most important skills in the area of ​​knowledge module. Participants also have access to a powerful industrial benchmarking (INCO-I), with which we can measure the degree of excellence of its production plant. Professional outings Some of the career options you can choose to, among others, are: Director of operations Industrial Director Head of Plant / Factory Manager Address Process Engineering Director of Operational Excellence Continuous improvement Responsible Head of Lean Manufacturing Kaizen responsible Responsible Supply Chain / suppliers Approval Objectives of Master in Production Management and Process Improvement What goals are going to get? To offer a comprehensive vision of industrial... [-]

Master's Degree In Management And Innovation In Gastronomy

Institut Paul Bocuse España
Campus Full time 1 year September 2017 Spain Barcelona

The Paul Bocuse Institute Spain is a new Master in Management and Innovation in Gastronomy, with the experience and knowledge of one of the most important and influential chefs in the world, who was the founder of the Nouvelle Cuisine but in an innovative gastronomic environment. Creative as is the city of Barcelona. The Master is developed under an international approach, where the gastronomy is not only understood as the dish and with this the transformation of the agri-food products, but, on the contrary, it requires an integral vision of the sector as much agri-food, as of the restoration in The one that is immersed. [+]

Presentation and Objectives In the current international gastronomic panorama in which the cuisine, the culinary, the local products, the traditions and the know-how in the transformation of the dishes, are recognized as intangible cultural heritage; Has generated an important and growing demand for creative, proactive and committed professionals able to follow the path towards constant transformation and gastronomic innovation. Faced with this paradigm, the Paul Bocuse Institute Spain is a new Master in Management and Innovation in Gastronomy, together with the experience and knowledge of one of the most important and influential chefs in the world, who was the founder of Nouvelle Cuisine but in a An innovative and creative gastronomic environment as is the city of Barcelona. The Master is developed under an international approach, where the gastronomy is not only understood as the dish and with this the transformation of the agri-food products, but, on the contrary, it requires an integral vision of the sector as much agri-food, as of the restoration in The one that is immersed. The main objective of the Master is to train professionals capable of leading, creating and proposing new options linked to gastronomy in a globalized context but, at the same time, concerned with fundamental aspects of food such as sustainability, culinary traditions, and The food identity of the regions. To do this, the Master offers a broad training in a specific direction and at the same time polyvalent that attends the current trends linked to gastronomy, such as slow cuisine, Mediterranean... [-]

Master in Global Entrepreneurial Management

University of San Francisco - School of Management
Campus Full time 1 year September 2017 Spain Barcelona

The Master in Global Entrepreneurial Management (MGEM) at the University of San Francisco will take you to Barcelona, Taipei, and San Francisco, revealing successful, creative, and innovative business practices through the cultural lens of three vibrant cities. [+]

Masters in Spain 2017. The Master in Global Entrepreneurial Management (MGEM) at the University of San Francisco will take you to Barcelona, Taipei, and San Francisco, revealing successful, creative, and innovative business practices through the cultural lens of three vibrant cities. The MGEM program combines direct exposure to multinational entrepreneurial firms with an international cohort of students to provide you with global business skills for success. - Spend four months in each participating city and graduate in one year - Offered at USF's San Francisco Downtown Campus, in conjunction with Institut Quimic de Sarria (Barcelona) and Fu Jen Catholic University (Taipei) - All courses are taught in English - Undergraduate degree must be conferred within the past three years Entry Requirements - Official Transcript(s) – Copies of your transcripts from each accredited college or university attended must be uploaded to the online application. Once admitted to the program, instructions for sending official, sealed transcripts will be provided. The minimum graduate admission requirement includes a bachelor’s degree or recognized equivalent from an accredited institution. - Résumé – A copy of your current résumé is required and must be uploaded as part of the online application. - Letters of Recommendation – Two letters of recommendation are required. Applicants to all programs should submit at least one letter from a professional contact, if possible. Ideally, one or both of your recommendations will come from a current or former direct supervisor. Academic recommendations are also appreciated for current undergraduates. Enter the recommenders' email addresses... [-]

Masters In Accessories And Fashion Accessories

FDModa - LCI Barcelona
Campus Full time 2 semesters September 2017 Spain Barcelona

The curriculum covers the entire process of creating a collection, based on the creative concept to the development of the business plan that supports the viability of it. [+]

Language of instruction: Spanish The fight for market expansion of the big brands that determines the need for companies to offer and expand its range of products and services with new lines of apparel and accessories. Ins have become the backbone of the economy of fashion. You are not an accessory, they are elements that define the look and personality far beyond clothing. Fashion Accessories are the product that best communicates the style and is also one of the primary tools that best defines a conceptual identity and brand aesthetics. Thus the figure of a specialized apparel and accessories design professional with expertise and judgment about fashion, and capacity is essential to use the traditional tools and new creation in the design of a product that must compete in an increasingly increasing and more complex. Objective: Provide students needed to be able to successfully resolve the whole process of design and manufacture of any line of accessories and fashion accessories, with special emphasis in the areas of training shoes and handbags. The curriculum covers the entire process of creating a collection, based on the creative concept to the development of the business plan that supports the viability of it. [-]

Master's Degree In Higher Education

University of Europe Laureate Digital: Universidad Europea de Madrid
Online Full time 15  October 2017 Spain Madrid

The Master in Higher Education is a qualification recognized at European level, high-quality and higher specificity, which allows university professors achieve specialization are required at the same time opening the doors to a PhD program in Education . [+]

Masters in Spain 2017. The Master in Higher Education is a recognized qualification at the European level, high-quality and higher specificity, which allows university professors achieve specialization are required, at the same time opens the door to a PhD program in Education. Similarly, this training course can be developed by professionals with prior qualifications and no experience in the field of university teaching wishing to strengthen their training. The objectives of this degree focus on improving the qualification as a university lecturer through applied to areas of the didactic-pedagogic university management, research, innovation and use of technologies that must master a university professor in our knowledge weather. The main differential of this Master arguments are as follows: All workload is offered online, giving students a great organizational flexibility. Gives an insight into all the dimensions must have teacher training college. Facilta access to practice in a large number of universities. It is the ideal platform to begin research-oriented university teaching. Academic program MODULE I. THE CONTEXT OF HIGHER EDUCATION MODULE II. ACTORS AND SCENARIOS MODULE III. THE LEARNING PROCESS I MODULE IV. THE PROCESS LEARNING II MODULE V. MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF THE LEARNING PROCESS MODULE VI. ICTS IN THE PROCESS OF LEARNING MODULE VII. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE: EXPERIENCE MODULE VIII. INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH MODULE IX. TEACHING INNOVATION X. MODULE END OF MASTERS Accreditation National Agency for Quality Assessment and Accreditation (ANECA) Testimonials "Teaching has always been one of my passions, and Master in Higher Education European University has helped... [-]

Master in Digital Solutions Development

BARCELONA TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL
Campus Full time 9 months October 2017 Spain Barcelona

The Master in Digital Solutions Development is ideal for those who want to enter the Digital industry with a solid base on which to start a new career in IT. Aligned with the technology and programming skills that the digital companies need to develop creative technology solutions. [+]

The Master in Digital Solutions Development is ideal for those who want to enter the Digital industry with a solid base on which to start a new career in IT. Aligned with the technology and programming skills that the digital companies need to develop creative technology solutions. WHAT WILL I LEARN? The skills that you will gain will qualify you for a diverse range of job roles across the IT industry. You will learn all aspects of the IT business system cycle including the analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation of systems to increase business efficiencies. In addition, you will learn to design, create, document and implement computer programs in a range of different languages. Barcelona Technology School ensures to all the participants a professional experience after the Master. DURATION The Master in Digital Solutions Development offers you an university accreditation with 60 ECTS. The completion of the full time program takes 9 months, it starts on October 2016. Barcelona Technology School is an international institution, being all the programs taught in English and in the sunny and innovative city of Barcelona. A key part of the program is project-based learning, where participants will either generate and develop their own digital projects & solutions. READY FOR A BIG DIGITAL CAREER Tech industry is exploding and the key digital companies need your talent. Barcelona Technology School connects your career with the digital industry while brings you the most demanded digital knowledge & skills. INTERNSHIPS & JOBS OPPORTUNITIES Thanks to our agreements... [-]

Master in Accounting and Financial Management (specialization in International Finance)

Barcelona School of Management · Pompeu Fabra University
Campus Full time 1 year October 2017 Spain Barcelona

The Master in Accounting and Financial Management (specialization in International Finance)* at UPF Barcelona School of Management will train you as an expert professional in finance and accounting, thinking especially about companies with international presence. Basic aspects such as detailed knowledge of international accounting regulations, multinational financial management or international taxation will be discussed in depth. [+]

Masters in Spain 2017. The Master in Accounting and Financial Management (specialization in International Finance)* at UPF Barcelona School of Management will train you as an expert professional in finance and accounting, thinking especially about companies with international presence. Basic aspects such as detailed knowledge of international accounting regulations, multinational financial management or international taxation will be discussed in depth. *Pending approval AQU. While studying the Master in Accounting and Financial Management (specialization in International Finance), taught both in spanish and english, you will acquire the necessary knowledge to align the evolution of the economic and financial enviroment with the management of companies with a strong internationalization. Throughout the course, you will deepen international financial reporting standards, aspects related to the financing of international operations and management control systems of multinational companies. Aimed at university graduates from administration and management, economics or business studies, or professionals working in accounting and finance, the Master in Accounting and Financial Management (specialization in International Finance) boasts an eminent teaching staff made up of lecturers from the Department of Economics and Business at Pompeu Fabra University and professionals working in leading businesses. From these renowned lecturers you will also learn management techniques and skills for leading working teams in finance and accounting departments. With the Master in Accounting and Financial Management you may also specialize in Controlling and Corporate Finance. Class times: Mondays, Tuesdays and Wednesdays from 6pm to 9pm. Classes can be held on Thursdays or Fridays according to the electives chosen. University... [-]

Executive Master In Management Of Hotel Companies

HTSI School of Tourism and Hospitality Management Sant Ignasi
Campus Part time 8 months September 2017 Spain Barcelona

The Executive Master in Hotel Management of the Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management is a master's degree from the University Ramon Llull that promotes and consolidates your passion for hospitality with the aim of becoming one of the leaders of the International hotel industry. [+]

The tourism and hotel sector is one of the areas of greatest economic growth at the international level and demand Specialized professionals With an excellent academic background that is easily Ever-changing industry. He Executive Master in Hotel Management Of the Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management is a masters degree from Ramon Llull University Promotes and consolidates your passion for hospitality With the aim that you Become one of the leaders of the international hotel industry. The program offers: A global and transversal vision of the hotel business : from the conception, definition, implementation of the hotel project, start-up and launch, operation and management of the hotel company, with special emphasis on the development of strategic and financial knowledge. A practical orientation : reinforce the formal knowledge and equip the participants with methodologies and tools that strengthen success in their professional and personal challenges. The development of managerial skills and abilities , understanding the current environment, trends, risks, threats and opportunities, to learn how to take advantage of them both for their own benefit and for the company. To whom it May concern? The Executive Master in Hotel Management Of the Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management Sant Ignasi is addressed to all those Passionate hotel professionals And with potential, who want to deepen and increase their knowledge of Management, strategy and hotel management, And in turn wish to improve their leadership skills. People capable of Look at the hotel business from another angle To consolidate their professional career and... [-]

Master of Science in International Finance

Geneva Business School (GBS)
Campus Full time Part time 18 months September 2017 Spain Barcelona + 1 more

The Master of Science in Finance with a major in International Finance is designed to challenge and develop your understanding of global finance through rigorous training in the conceptual, analytical and empirical intricacies of modern international finance and investment. [+]

Masters in Spain 2017. The Master of Science in Finance with a major in International Finance is designed to challenge and develop your understanding of global finance through rigorous training in the conceptual, analytical and empirical intricacies of modern international finance and investment. You will understand the macroeconomic forces that shape the world today, how to assess risk and respond to emerging finance and investment challenges. Facts Duration: 18 months Credits: 90 ECTS Language: English Intakes: February and September Degree Awarded: Master of Science in Finance (MSc.F) Major in International Finance. Exchange Program: Rotate between Geneva and Barcelona campuses. We offer the opportunity of studying in both campuses during the 18 month master program. Internships: Students have internship opportunities with important companies. Location: Geneva and Barcelona Program The international nature of GBS has led to the development of a system that combines the European approach of using ECTS credits with a curriculum structure that is commonly implemented in the United States. Each program major allows students to study general education, core and elective subjects which cover 80% of all curriculums, 20% dedicated to orientation subjects related to their specific major, these subjects are unique for each Program. Orientation Subjects Wealth Management Hedge Fund Analysis & Management Finance and Banking International Financial Crisis Capital Budgeting Financial Markets Career Options Insurance Agent Loan Officer Real Estate Agent Financial Analyst Financial Advisor Corporate Accountant Stock Broker Securities Trader Banker Application and Admissions Selection Criteria GBS’s selection process emphasises leadership potential, academic ability, personal... [-]

Master In Internet Marketing And Digital Strategy

Escuela de Negocios y Dirección
Campus Full time 1 year September 2017 Spain Madrid

The Master in Internet Marketing and Digital Strategy seeks to equip students with the theoretical knowledge and key skills to develop a successful career in the digital environment. [+]

A MASTER FOR MANAGING COMPANY MARKETING 2.0 The digital economy has a determining factor, change and constant innovation. New environments, new technological solutions, new business models, new forms of communication with customers are constantly appearing. Given this situation, the definition of corporate and marketing strategies are a key element for business development. The domain of communications media offered by the technologies and internet, the current ways of communicating with the customer, selling through digital media, ... Are part of the key competencies that a 21st century professional must master. The Master of Internet Marketing and Digital Strategy Seeks to provide students with the theoretical knowledge and key skills to develop a successful career in the digital environment. Digital Marketing Plan Structure of a digital marketing plan. Definition of objectives and target audience. Scheduling actions. Defining KPI. Metrics. Profitability Analysis (ROI). I Digital Advertising: Search Engine Optimization - SEO Operation of search engines. Objectives of our website. Planning an SEO campaign. Factors positioning SEO Budget. Analysis of a SEO campaign. Digital II Advertising: Search Engine Marketing - SEM SEM. Search Engine Marketing. Basic concepts. Google Adwords I. Google Adwords II. Advertising Digital III Planning and procurement of digital media. Inbound marketing. Advertising on social networks. E-mail marketing. Affiliate Marketing. Display and enriched Advertising. programmatic advertising. Retargeting. Mobile marketing. Content Marketing. Gamification and Advergaming Landingpages creation and optimization. Campaign analysis and profitability analysis. Customer Management Relational marketing. Customer experience. Management and Social Networking Strategy Facebook. Linkedin. Twitter. Youtube. Google +. graphic social... [-]

Master's Degree In Classical Philology

UAM Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Campus Full time Part time 2 semesters September 2017 Spain Madrid + 1 more

The Joint Masters in Classical Philology offers a new framework for teaching and research in different areas of knowledge that are integrated with the common denominator of study Classical World, their languages ​​and their survival. [+]

Masters in Spain 2017. The Joint Masters in Classical Philology offers a new framework for teaching and research in different areas of knowledge that are integrated with the common denominator of study Classical World, their languages ​​and their survival. A Master of these features makes it possible: Deepening knowledge of certain matters that constitute the solvent theoretical framework for secondary teachers capable of imparting solvency matters of Culture Classical, Latin, Greek and humanistic disciplines of the ESO and high school, all without compromising the didactic training they receive all the mesob. Access to research activities through knowledge of the various research projects into force in the Community of Madrid and relevant training leading to the development of a doctoral thesis. It is a Master: INTERUNIVERSITARIO: Participating in the three universities of the Community of Madrid (Universidad Autónoma, Complutense University, University of Alcala de Henares). INTERDISCIPLINARY: It combines various areas of knowledge involved in the study of the ancient world: Latin Studies, Greek Studies, Indo-European Linguistics, Ancient History, etc. INDIVIDUAL: each student can organize their own curricular path, satisfying inclinations, preferences and interests. Thus, through the optional subjects, you can focus exclusively, if desired, in one of the languages-Greek or Latin- or complete their training in the second language. The training offer Master includes academic and research content seeking, first, a methodological preparation aimed at familiarizing students with the philological problems and provide mechanisms and tools necessary for a correct exegesis of each document type, and the other, a comparative and... [-]