Master Programs in Greece

Compare 27 Top Masters Programs in Greece 2017/2018

Master

If you wish to combine your educational experience with new landscapes and centuries of culture, then you should definitely consider a Master in Greece. Greece is a country with one of the longest histories in the world. This history is highly diverse and well documented, making Greece home to most of the sciences.

The modern Greek education system is a fine example of how education can be organized on its own. Higher education in Greece is mainly divided into two parts: universities and technological educational institutes (TEI). This second option is something that makes education in Greece different from other EU countries because these are self-governing bodies with much freedom for action. Additionally, TEIs have strong links with industry; they collaborate with other institutions internationally and participate in research and international technological projects. These aspects of the Greek educational system are beneficial for students seeking a Master in Greece.

Some of the highly sought after Master in Greece programs are in language studies and humanities, but on the other hand, business, innovation and technology are also flourishing in Greece. There are many great opportunities for students who want to study internationally with a Master in Greece.

So if you are looking for graduate education possibilities in Greece, read about the many choices that Greek universities have to offer by scrolling down and clicking on the particular Master in Greece programs that catch your interest!

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MA DESIGN specialising in Fashion Promotion

AAS College
Campus Full time 13 months September 2018 Greece Thessaloniki

MA Design - Fashion Promotion pathway course gives the innovative promoter chances to explore personal interests at postgraduate level, underpinned by extensive research, and combined with benefits of debate and peer review. The individual will subsequently be able to view their place within the multifaceted industry of the future. [+]

Masters in Greece 2017/2018. Teaching involves a combination of lectures, seminars, tutorials, presentations and industry liaison, and assessment is continuous. Theory underpinning practice is developed simultaneously throughout each semester and Negotiated Agreements Parts I and II allow students to acquire the ability to develop and refine proposals, which underpin their major projects, and reflect on personal progress. Students are expected to contextualize their work within a current framework, and develop evaluative skills in order to articulate their point of view. Research Methods and Application introduces students to a range of analytical research tools, forming the basis for all in-depth self-directed projects on the programme. The course aims to develop students’ intellectual and imaginative power through a programme of study that is formed from cohesion between theory and practice. It provides graduates with a stimulating environment in which ideas can be exchanged and supported through factual creative research, developed and contextualised. We challenge our students to take a critical position in relation to existing theories and encourage new connections within the field of fashion that challenge traditional design boundaries. Duration: 13 months (1 year) Educational Form: taught Education Variants: fulltime Language: English Classes Start Date: 2nd October 2017 Tuition Fees: 6.200 € Award Body: University of Central Lancashire - UK British Degree: Master of Arts Entry Requirements the AAS Application form completed Degree or Diploma and transcript from previous educational institution evidence of your ability in English language (IELTS 6.5 or its equivalent) portfolio passport Course at a glance Semester 1... [-]

Master of Philosophy in Legal Research or Governance Studies

European Law and Governance School
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Greece Athens

The ELGS Master of Philosophy is a 2-year degree program which enables students to conduct independent research in the fields of Legal Research, Governance Studies, or on an interdisciplinary topic. It is supported by the expansive ELGS International Faculty network of over 100 legal and governance scholars and practitioners worldwide, the ELGS’ Partner Universities across Europe and the world, and the EPLO. [+]

The ELGS Master of Philosophy is a 2-year degree program which enables students to conduct independent research in the fields of Legal Research, Governance Studies, or on an interdisciplinary topic. It is supported by the expansive ELGS International Faculty network of over 100 legal and governance scholars and practitioners worldwide, the ELGS’ Partner Universities across Europe and the world, and the EPLO. Importantly, students of the program will be granted access to attend EPLO events on key themes in EU law and governance and to interact with renown EU leaders and decision-makers. Students graduate with a clear understanding and awareness of the most up-to-date scholarly research, as well as a solid network to support them in their career after the ELGS. Successful applicants will be assigned a supervisor, based upon their academic interests, from the renowned International Faculty Network of the ELGS. Full time residency is not a requirement for this degree, but students may be required to attend several training sessions throughout the program which will be held at the EPLO premises in Greece. The first training session will introduce students to advanced research methods, while consecutive sessions focus on tutoring and teaching skills. Students are also expected attend classes, seminars, and lectures, as designated by their supervisors, and to be actively involved in presenting their research findings at conferences throughout Europe and the greater world . Upon completion of the program students will deliver up to a 50,000 word thesis and must successfully defend their thesis in front... [-]

Master of Studies (MSt) in Legal Research or Governance Studies

European Law and Governance School
Campus Full time 1 year October 2017 Greece Athens

The ELGS Master of Studies is a 1-year degree program which enables students to conduct independent research in the fields of Legal Research, Governance Studies, or on an interdisciplinary topic. [+]

Masters in Greece 2017/2018. The ELGS Master of Studies is a 1-year degree program which enables students to conduct independent research in the fields of Legal Research, Governance Studies, or on an interdisciplinary topic. It is supported by the expansive ELGS International Faculty network of over 100 legal and governance scholars and practitioners worldwide, the ELGS’ Partner Universities across Europe and the world, and the EPLO. Importantly, students of the program will be granted access to attend EPLO events on key themes in EU law and governance and to interact with renown EU leaders and decision-makers. Students graduate with a clear understanding and awareness of the most up-to-date scholarly research, as well as a solid network to support them in their career after the ELGS. Successful applicants will be assigned a supervisor, based upon their academic interests, from the renown International Faculty Network of the ELGS. Full time residency is not a requirement for this degree, but students will be required to attend several training sessions throughout the program which will be held at the EPLO premises in Greece. The first training session will introduce students to advanced research methods, while consecutive sessions focus on tutoring and teaching skills. Students are also expected attend classes, seminars, and lectures, as designated by their supervisors. Upon completion of the program students will deliver a 30,000 word thesis and must successfully defend their thesis in front of an international jury to attain their MSt. While this program encourages mobility and flexibility, students are... [-]

CLE Master program in European Literary Cultures

Erasmus Mundus Master Course in European Literary Cultures
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Greece Thessaloniki

The CLE Master’s program teaches students how to manage the manifold aspects of the European scene, offering them a multicultural education along three main methodological lines: [+]

About CLE The program seeks to provide a high quality preparation reflecting the multicultural aspects of Europe. The CLE Master Course is a program devoted to improving the quality of European Higher Education and strengthening intercultural communication. The programme encourages and supports: cooperation as well as student, scholar and staff exchange among universities; the worldwide promotion of the image of the European Union as a space of academic excellence; communication between university and cultural institutions and enterprises (Museums, Publishers, Foundations) as well as public and private companies; better career opportunities for its graduates and access to the international workforce. The CLE Master Course aims at providing international students with excellent T-shaped skills in: at least three European languages (English – mandatory, two other languages among French, Italian and Greek); at least three domains of European culture and thought (Literature, Art, Cultural History, Ethics and Aesthetics, Science of Language). The CLE Master Course is a two-year full-time academic program. At the end of the two-year program, after defending their Master’s thesis before an international committee, CLE students receive a multiple diploma issued by the universities of the consortium where they spent at least one semester. The language in which the courses are offered may vary according to the University providing them. Over the years, many additional activities (seminars, conferences, workshops, language courses) have been entrusted to highprofile scholars/guest lecturers. The CLE intends to maintain and reinforce this successful collaboration pattern. Participating universities : Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, ITALIA Université... [-]

Μaster of Arts in Digital Media, Communication and Journalism

Aristotle University Thessaloniki
Distance learning Full time 12 months Open Enrollment Greece Thessaloniki

The MA offers three pathways, each of which is designed to respond to a vital area of contemporary concern and application for researchers and professionals in the fields of communication and journalism. [+]

Masters in Greece 2017/2018. Μaster of Arts in Digital Media, Communication and Journalism Message from the Program Director Since its establishment, in 1991, the School of Journalism and Mass Communications of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki offers full-time, four-year long BA degree programs both in Journalism and in Mass Communications. The creation of an English language Master’s program in the areas of Journalism and Communications, the first of its kind among Greek public Universities, is based on the School’s 25 year-long success in promoting learning through theory-building, cutting edge technical skills and professional training, and reflects its steadfast commitment to innovation, excellence, interdisciplinary education and international outlook.What makes our Master’s program relevant is the consistent integration of the students' study, skills and projects to the real world. Innovation and thoughtfulness have always been the only route for students, but I can’t think of a more critical time than now, in our highly complex, risk ridden, globalized and networked societies, for all thinking to become more methodical, reflexive and innovative. We look for students who are eager to take on more challenges, to learn more about themselves and about the world, to reach their full potential. Our faculty, all active scholars and researchers, are committed to helping students succeed in their pursuits. Together we work to make each student’s experience at Aristotle University a rich and fulfilling one that broadens his or hers intellectual and professional horizons. We look forward to welcoming you to the School of Journalism and Mass Communications. With... [-]

LLM Labour Law and Employment Relations

Tilburg University
Campus Full time 1 year August 2018 Greece Crete

The LLM Labour Law and Employment Relations integrates the study of labour law with related areas such as employment relations, labour market and social policy, from an international and European perspective. This program’s approach will provide you with the skill-set modern professionals in employment relations need, with the opportunity to distinguish yourself in a highly competitive market. [+]

Master Labour Law and Employment Relations The LLM Labour Law and Employment Relations integrates the study of labour law with related areas such as employment relations, labour market and social policy, from an international and European perspective. This program’s approach will provide you with the skill-set modern professionals in employment relations need, with the opportunity to distinguish yourself in a highly competitive market. Cope with international and comparative labor issues from a variety of perspectives The growing importance and number of multi-national enterprises as well as an increase in international employability call for a new type of specialist that is able to cope with international and comparative labor issues from a variety of perspectives. This is particularly true for the European Union’s internal market in which complex legal and policy relations arise. Why the Master in Labour Law and Employment Relations in Tilburg? Gain interdisciplinary and international knowledge and skills. Combine courses in the field of International Labour Law with courses in the fields of Social Policy, Labour Market and Human Resources Studies.. Learn to understand and analyze evolving employment relationships and contemporary organizational dynamics in internationalizing labour markets. Develop a thorough understanding of the individual and collective labour law systems governing the different markets. Apply the theory in real-world practice. An internship is part of the curriculum. Labour Law and Employment Relations in short Language English Start End of August and end of January Duration One Year (12 Months) Title Master in Laws (LLM) Studielink The name of this... [-]

International Master in Advanced Clay Science (IMACS)

University of Poitiers
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Greece Crete

IMACS is an integrated Master of Science designed by 4 institutions with a wide range of leadership in clay science. [+]

Masters in Greece 2017/2018. ENVIRONMENTS- ECONOMIC GEOLOGY-SOIL MANAGEMENT-GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING-GEOMATERIAL-NANOMATERIAL IMACS is an integrated Master of Science designed by 4 institutions with a wide range of leadership in clay science : the University of Poitiers (UP) in France (co-ordinator), the University of Aveiro (UA) in Portugal, the Technical University of Crete (TUC) (Chania) in Greece, the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) (Porto Alegre) in Brazil. Why clay minerals ? Interest in clays results from their common availability, and their unique physical and chemical properties. No other minerals currently attract so great an interest. In addition to their conventional ancient use as bricks, tiles, ceramics and for paper coating and waste management more recently, clays have found many novel applications. Clay minerals have provided a boost in technology, because they are inexpensive nanomaterials, and as such, they have a huge potential for the synthesis of polymer nanocomposites with superior mechanical and thermal properties. The optimisation of adsorption, colloidal and rheological properties also opens prospects of using clay minerals for medical uses, pollution control, and environmental protection. Clay minerals play a role in economic geology (both as important mineral resource and in energy resource exploration) and soil management. Clays also have many negative effects in geotechnical engineering, manifested in the form of landslides, mudflows, and the deterioration of clay-based construction materials. Clay knowledge is extremely inter- and multidisciplinary as it includes geological, geotechnical, mineralogical, physico-chemical and bio-geochemical aspects. The IMACS is the first master course addressing analytical techniques and their... [-]

Msc in Olympic Studies, Olympic Education, Organization and Management of Olympic Events

University of Peloponnese - International Olympic Academy in Greece
Campus Full time 3 semesters September 2018 Greece Athens

The Master’s Degree Programme for the Olympic Studies constitutes an innovation in the Olympic Movement at an international level. The educational programme is based on the three pillars of the Olympic Movement: Education, Sports and Culture, which constitute the foundation for Olympism and Olympic Pedagogy. [+]

The Master’s Degree Programme for the Olympic Studies constitutes an innovation in the Olympic Movement at an international level and is supported by the Olympic Solidarity (International Olympic Committee). The educational programme is based on the three pillars of the Olympic Movement: Education, Sports and Culture, which constitute the foundation for Olympism and Olympic Pedagogy. The philosophy of the programme is consistent with the values of the Olympic movement for the diffusion of the Olympic ideal worldwide, the promotion of knowledge and research in Olympic issues and global participation. The duration of the programme is three (3) semesters. Students are required to attend two semesters of lectures in Greece and the third semester is done at student’s place. Dates of Lectures in Greece: First Semester: 15/9/2016-18/11/2016 Second Semester: 6/4/2017-11/6/2017 The dates of the second semester are subject to change. The programme takes place at the facilities of the International Olympic Academy in Ancient Olympia and the facilities of the University of Peloponnese in Sparta, Greece. The presence of the students at all the lectures is mandatory and the submission of module assignments and examinations at the end of each semester as well as the dissertation project at the end of the 3rd semester will determinate the success of the participants in this programme. OBJECTIVES The promotion of knowledge and research on issues of Olympic philosophy and education, organization and management of Olympic Games, big athletic events and in general Olympic and athletic studies. To provide students with specialized knowledge at... [-]

MSc in Communications and Cyber Security

International Hellenic University (IHU)
Campus Full time Part time 14 - 26 months October 2017 Greece Thessaloniki + 1 more

Every modern organisation faces security risks that threaten their valuable assets; therefore it is imperative to design secure information and communication systems to protect against these threats. What’s more, security and threats [+]

Masters in Greece 2017/2018. Every modern organisation faces security risks that threaten their valuable assets; therefore it is imperative to design secure information and communication systems to protect against these threats. What’s more, security and threats have been evolving hand-in-hand, making the burden of security and information assurance a continuous challenge that only highly skilled professionals can handle. This programme offers a rich curriculum that emphasizes on communication networks and the underlying technologies and vulnerabilities, while at the same time covering critical topics such as information security, forensics, legal and ethical issues etc. The lecture series by leading academics from Greece and abroad, along with projects and dissertation work, ensure that students graduate equipped with state-of-the-art scientific knowledge and modern practical skills, on their way to become highly competitive at international level. This programme is designed for University graduates of Telecommunications, Informatics/Computer Science, and Electrical Engineering but also of Natural Sciences and Economic and Business Departments, with a strong background in ICT and a strong motivation to pursue a career in Communications and Cyber Security related domains. The Structure The MSc in Communications and Cyber Security (full-time) is a 14-month programme taught over three terms. Lectures mainly take place on weekday evenings. It is also available in part-time mode over 26 months for those who cannot commit to a full-time programme either for work or other reasons. Upon arrival at the IHU all students attend foundation courses in Java and SQL, that aims to bring all incoming students to the... [-]

MSc in Mobile and Web Computing

International Hellenic University (IHU)
Campus Full time Part time 14 - 26 months October 2017 Greece Thessaloniki + 1 more

Since its invention in 1989, the World Wide Web has long been the main driver of development and progress, not only in the ICT sector itself but also, and most importantly, in virtually all aspects of human life. Standing on the shoulders [+]

Since its invention in 1989, the World Wide Web has long been the main driver of development and progress, not only in the ICT sector itself but also, and most importantly, in virtually all aspects of human life. Standing on the shoulders of the WWW's success, the introduction of smartphones brought about a new technological revolution, which many had foreseen as a necessary next step. Today, these two technological fields have converged into a common track, where applications and infrastructure are advancing hand-in-hand toward the vision of Ubiquitous Computing and Web 3.0. In our effort to address this trend we introduce the “MSc in Mobile and Web Computing” programme. It has been designed to provide a mixture of state-of-the-art knowledge in relevant computer science, communications, web and mobile technologies, blended with essential business skills. The lecture series by leading academic instructors from Greece and abroad, along with projects and dissertation work, mean that students graduate well equipped and highly competitive at international level. This programme is designed for University graduates of Informatics/Computer Science, and Electrical Engineering but also of Natural Sciences and Economic and Business Departments, with a background in ICT and a strong motivation to pursue a career in Mobile and Web Computing related domains. The Structure The MSc in Mobile and Web Computing (full-time) is a 14-month programme taught over three terms. Lectures mainly take place on weekday evenings. It is also available in part-time mode over 26 months for those who cannot commit to a full-time programme... [-]

MSc in e-Business and Digital Marketing

International Hellenic University (IHU)
Campus Full time Part time 14 - 26 months October 2017 Greece Thessaloniki + 1 more

Entrepreneurial skills, when combined with deep technical knowledge, can lead to producing innovative ideas in the global competitive e-Business environment. This new postgraduate course aims at providing balanced and well-designed training [+]

Masters in Greece 2017/2018. Entrepreneurial skills, when combined with deep technical knowledge, can lead to producing innovative ideas in the global competitive e-Business environment. This new postgraduate course aims at providing balanced and well-designed training in both the principles of software and telecommunications applied to e-Business practices, as well as the essential managerial, marketing and financing skills needed to start-up and successfully run an e-Business. The 14-month course will appeal to graduates pursuing a career in a range of entrepreneurial, managerial and marketing positions in the ICT or other similar IT-oriented domain in the emergent creative economy. The syllabus provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical skills, focusing on e-Business/e-Commerce applications and the underlying technologies: Project management, leadership and team working Management and marketing Entrepreneurial skills and knowledge needed to develop start-up businesses Key skills on strategic decisions, regarding innovation and technology management, Essential communication skills Exercise practice-oriented teaching based on case studies and real-world examples Skills related to data analysis and evaluation Planning and time management The MSc in e-Business and Digital Marketing programme promotes learning and teaching characterised by a diversity of resources and teaching styles and techniques, which recognise that the University operates in an ever-changing environment. Teaching and learning methods should assist the development of these skills, by encouraging not merely the capacity for abstract reasoning, but also the students' capacities for independent and self-motivated learning, problem-solving skills, and some of the knowledge and skills, which are common to employment in many fields. This programme... [-]

MSc in International Accounting, Auditing, and Financial Management

International Hellenic University (IHU)
Campus Full time Part time 12 months October 2017 Greece Thessaloniki + 1 more

The International Hellenic University is Greece’s first state university, where programmes are taught exclusively in English. It already attracts a strong international academic faculty [+]

The International Hellenic University is Greece’s first state university, where programmes are taught exclusively in English. It already attracts a strong international academic faculty and outstanding students from Southeast and other European and Black Sea countries. As a state University, all degrees awarded are accredited by the Government and are recognized in the European Union and internationally. The Programme The MSc in International Accounting, Auditing, and Financial Management has been developed by experts with experience in international accounting, auditing, and finance in both academia and industry. The MSc combines accounting and auditing knowledge with expertise in finance, which helps students gain the necessary knowledge of the international accounting and finance environment. Ideal Career Path The Careers Office of the International Hellenic University provides you with focused events, access to career information, vacancy information, career fairs, Erasmus opportunities and internships. The programme supports students who aim for careers as: - Accountants - Auditors - Consultants in accounting, auditing, tax and financial management - Tax revenue officers - Corporate Lawyers Programme Structure Core modules: Accounting and Financial Analysis| Auditing| Accountability, Governance and Regulation| Management Accounting| Credit Analysis for Bank Loan Decision Making| Foundations of Finance |Corporate Finance | Quantitative Methods Elective modules (you can choose four): Taxation | | Advanced Auditing | Accounting Information Systems | Transfer Pricing | Advanced Company Valuation | Corporate Governance Sustainability: Accounting and Reporting | Accounting Fraud Examination | Ethics in Accounting Banking Legal Environment | Financial Regulation | Accounting for Derivatives | Cost Planning and Analysis... [-]

LLM in Trans/European Commercial Law, Mediation, Arbitration & Energy Law

International Hellenic University (IHU)
Campus Full time Part time 14 months October 2017 Greece Thessaloniki + 1 more

This programme puts forward a genuinely transnational and European perspective. It offers a highly flexible qualification suitable for a wide range of career openings in many sectors. It is addressed to recent graduates and qualified lawyers seeking to pursue a career in international, EU and transnational commercial law, company law, capital markets law, financial law and alternative dispute resolution, as well as to national regulators and public officer. [+]

The University

The International Hellenic University is Greece’s first state university, where programmes are taught exclusively in English.It already attracts a strong international academic faculty and outstanding students from Southeast and other European and Black Sea countries.As a state University, all degrees awarded are accredited by the Government and are recognized in the European Union and internationally.

 

The Course

The LL.M. programme emphasizes on learning how cross-border business activities, companies and financial markets are regulated and how alternative dispute resolution is conducted. It is designed to offer students a thorough understanding of theory and practice in three functionally interdependent areas of law: Transnational Commercial Law, European Economic Law and Alternative Dispute Resolution (arbitration and mediation).... [-]


Master in Music

University of Nicosia
Campus Full time Part time 3 semesters September 2018 Greece Athens + 1 more

The MMus Programme is designed to enhance students? existing qualifications and their ability to excel in today's professional environment, where musicians must posses exceptional training as both teachers and performers. [+]

Duration (years): 1.5 years Qualification Awarded: Music (MMus, 1.5 years or 3 semesters) Level of Qualification: 2nd Cycle Language of Instruction: English/Greek Mode of Study: Full-time and Part-time are both possible. Minimum Credits: 30 Minimum ECTS Credits: 90 Profile of the Programme: The MMus Programme is designed to enhance students? existing qualifications and their ability to excel in today's professional environment, where musicians must posses exceptional training as both teachers and performers. Accordingly, the MMus programme provides equal emphasis on the students? artistic and pedagogical training in their specific performance area, along with coursework that will enhance their ability to conduct independent research and pursue a career characterized by self-motivated lifelong learning in their field. Career Prospects: Performing Musicians, Music Teachers, Arts Professionals (management, foundation work, etc.), Music Scholars Access to Further Studies: Graduates from this degree will be eligible to continue for additional post-graduate study in any area of music, as well as music related study of education. This may include work towards an additional master's degree or on a PhD or DMus degree. Graduation Requirements The student must complete 90 ECTS and all programme requirements. A minimum cumulative grade point average (CPA) of 2.0 is required. Thus, although a ‘D-‘ is a PASS grade, in order to achieve a CPA of 2.0 an average grade of ‘C’ is required Learning Outcomes Upon successful completion of this program, the students should be able to: 1. Demonstrate high technical skills of artistic expression. 2. Express knowledge of a wide variety... [-]

Master Of Education Sciences: Theory, Practice And Assessment Of Teaching

University of Nicosia
Campus Full time Part time 3 semesters September 2018 Greece Athens + 1 more

The purpose of the program is twofold. On the one hand, help the student to acquire deep knowledge in the field of specialization through (a) the monitoring of educational courses in an advanced level, (b) study the relevant literature, and (c) interaction with Faculty and other students. On the other, the program aims at fostering research skills through (a) the monitoring of specific quantitative and qualitative research courses, (b) small scale investigations in the various courses and / or drafting Master Thesis, and (c) participation in seminars / conferences research content. [+]

Masters in Greece 2017/2018. Duration of study (years): 1.5 year Title of Studies: Education: Theory, Practice and Assessment of Teaching (MEd, 1.5 years or 3 semesters) Level of Title of Study: Postgraduate (2nd Cycle of Studies) Language of instruction: Greek Study Mode: Full-time / Part-time Minimum Credits: 30 Minimum European Credit Units (ECTS): 90 Program Description Purpose The purpose of the program is twofold. On the one hand, help the student to acquire deep knowledge in the field of specialization through (a) the monitoring of educational courses in an advanced level, (b) study the relevant literature, and (c) interaction with Faculty and other students. On the other, the program aims at fostering research skills through (a) the monitoring of specific quantitative and qualitative research courses, (b) small scale investigations in the various courses and / or drafting Master Thesis, and (c) participation in seminars / conferences research content. In general, the overall aim of the program is to help the student to become an independent thinker and scientist educator. Goals To promote and support quality teaching through the analysis of sociological, philosophical and psychological assumptions regarding the organization, conduct and evaluation of teaching. To contribute to the modernization of teaching, guiding and exercising advisory role both in the development programs at school level and in terms of the organization, conduct and evaluation of teaching. Deepen the research findings as well as methodological issues relating to the organization and conduct of teaching. To utilize the latest technology for teaching and learning... [-]