Master Program in Ostrava Czech Republic

Top Masters Programs in Ostrava Czech Republic 2017/2018

Master

A master's degree is a postgraduate academic degree. One must already have an undergraduate degree to apply for a master's program. Most master's degree program would require students to complete a master's thesis or research paper.

A Master, which takes one to two years of schooling to receive, may help students improve their professional skills and gain knowledge in their chosen field. This improvement in skills and knowledge may lead to a highly skilled career with opportunities for advancement.

 

Czech Republic is in the heart of Europe is a neighbor of Slovakia, Austria, Germany, and Poland. Czech universities offer long-standing reputation and interesting specializations.

View Master's Degrees in Ostrava in Czech Republic 2017/2018

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Master in Computational Sciences

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

This programme focuses on the education of experts in the field of supercomputing and the use of high performance computing in solving computationally demanding tasks in applied sciences, as well as technology. It has a unique advantage of its association with the IT4Innovations National Supercomputing Centre, one of Europe’s most powerful supercomputers, located on the University campus. This provides hands-on opportunity for the practical application of theoretical instruction. [+]

Masters 2017/2018 in Ostrava Czech Republic. Branch Profile This programme focuses on the education of experts in the field of supercomputing and the use of high performance computing in solving computationally demanding tasks in applied sciences, as well as technology. It has a unique advantage of its association with the IT4Innovations National Supercomputing Centre, one of Europe’s most powerful supercomputers, located on the University campus. This provides hands-on opportunity for the practical application of theoretical instruction. Key Learning Outcomes KNOWLEDGE Students will become familiar with various architectures of today’s supercomputers and will learn to program effectively, making use of computational resources to solve demanding practical problems. SKILLS The students will acquire skills in programming parallel applications and designing effective parallel algorithms. Additionally, four different specializations are available, each providing specific skills from the following domains: data analysis and visualisation, numerical parallel algorithms, computational physics and chemistry, and engineering applications. Emphasis is placed on developing skills of interdisciplinary dialogue, a reality of the modern workplace. GENERAL COMPETENCIES Students will gain corresponding training in the field of soft skills. Thanks to the wide range of international R&D projects, IT4Innovations develops students’ ability to work in international, multi-disciplinary teams. Occupational Profiles of Graduates Graduates of the Computational Sciences programme will find their career, for example, in R&D institutions using HPC tools in order to achieve objectives of their research work, and often running their own computational systems. There has recently been a significant increase in number of such companies demanding these skills and... [-]

Master in Building Construction

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 18 months September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

This programme will equip you with the advanced knowledge and professional skills to succeed in the challenging, dynamic and highly in-demand industry of civil engineering. The Fauclty of Civil Engineering places a strong emphasis on helping you apply gained knowledge to real-world problems. [+]

Branch Profile Building Constructions is focused on the design and creation of a variety of civil engineering structures such as factory buildings, transportation construction, and many others. This programme will equip you with the advanced knowledge and professional skills to succeed in the challenging, dynamic and highly in-demand industry of civil engineering. The Faculty of Civil Engineering places a strong emphasis on helping you apply gained knowledge to real-world problems. Over 50% of all the lessons are taken either in laboratories or in practical-oriented classes. This will enable you to interface the gained theoretical knowledge with real-life examples from the building industry. Students are highly encourage to take part in the research activities of the Faculty laboratories, not only by their study projects but also by a number of opportunities in specialized and expert fields. The IT and other laboratories are equipped with the latest, state-of-the-art software, programmes and specialist facilities enabling you to keep up to date with all the changes in the field, with courses taught by leading academics and practitioners, who will prepare you to succeed in the challenges of the 21st century. All gained knowledge in this programme can be applied in structural subjects in the area of design, assessment and application of concrete, masonry, steel and timber structures and bridges. Prepare yourself as a leader in the dynamic construction industry: study Building Construction with us! Key Learning Outcomes KNOWLEDGE Students of Building Constructions will develop and expand knowledge and understanding of structural mechanics and principles... [-]

Master in Geotechnics

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 18 months September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

Field of master study of Geotechnics takes one and half years. It takes the Geotechnics bachelor degree up. The knowledge acquired in the bachelor course of geotechnics is further developed in two trends. [+]

Masters 2017/2018 in Ostrava Czech Republic. Branch Profile Field of master study of Geotechnics takes one and half years. It takes the Geotechnics bachelor degree up. The knowledge acquired in the bachelor course of geotechnics is further developed in two trends. First it intensifies more the fundaments adopted before to achieve an advanced level in them. Secondly it concerts fundaments to see the geotechnical engineering in its complexity and also optionally it proceeds some geotechnical affaires that can became the graduate future employment after finishing study. The master study terminates with a thesis defense on a geotechnical topic and with a comprehensive examination in tree geotechnical matters. The acquired knowledge is sufficient to take up a professional work on upper lever in the geotechnical practice. The master study constitutes a takeoff for a successful live long individual professional perfection. The best graduates can continue on Doctor study. Key Learning Outcomes KNOWLEDGE Graduate has a broad knowledge not only of the basic geotechnical disciplines, but also from a number of specialized disciplines that reflect the contemporary state of knowledge in the field and is enable to solve complex geotechnical problems. Graduates demonstrate a broad knowledge of theories and methods of the field, but is able to effectively implement activities and findings of other related disciplines.   SKILLS Based on the knowledge of the field of study the graduate is ready to a comprehensive solution of the theoretical and practical problems with using the latest knowledge in the field. It is able to... [-]

Master in Mining Engineering

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

The Master’s studies in Mining Engineering enriches the knowledge gained in the specialized field and that increases the possibilities of advancement in the profession, especially to management grades. [+]

Study Branch Mining Branch Profile The Master’s studies in Mining Engineering enriches the knowledge gained in the specialized field and that increases the possibilities of advancement in the profession, especially to management grades. A graduate satisfies the conditions required by the Czech authorities for all official positions in mines and quarries in the Czech Republic. The course educates experts to work in the sphere of mining and in the processing of raw materials, including fossil fuels and metallic and non-metallic minerals. A graduate will be well-qualified to work in establishments engaged in civil engineering or to be employed as research workers working as state administration clerks in municipal offices and in regional authorities and ministries. After a successful graduation of the Master’s course, it is possible to continue in doctoral [Ph.D.] studies in the field of Mining or Mining Geomechanics. Key Learning Outcomes Knowledge On the basis of theoretical and practical experience, the graduate can apply their knowledge and expertise in mining, processing, and cleaning up the mining activities, as deep, and superficial way, then find application in energy, engineering companies and handlers of valuable minerals and companies that deal with landscaping work. Skills Graduate of the programme Mining can provide engineering, design and manage the exploratory phase of the preparation of deposits, mining engineering works, traffic management, rehabilitation and liquidation activity in higher levels of business management. General Competencies The Master's degree in Mining Engineering is conceived so that future graduates enjoy the widest application in practice. Occupational Profiles... [-]

Master in Geological Engineering

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus or Online Full time 2 weeks September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

The study in this field is predominantly focused on the education of the engineers in applied geology (hydrology, engineering geology, technical mineralogy and petrography, environmental geochemistry, economy geology, drilling exploration and applied geophysics). [+]

Masters 2017/2018 in Ostrava Czech Republic. Study Branch Geological Engineering Branch Profile The study in this field is predominantly focused on the education of the engineers in applied geology (hydrology, engineering geology, technical mineralogy and petrography, environmental geochemistry, economy geology, drilling exploration and applied geophysics). Theoretical as well as practical parts of the education are targeted at implementing, managing, organizing and assessing of all kinds of geological operations. The core of the study concentrates on the analysis of geological phenomena, assessment of economic and ecological aspects of geological activities, mining and industrial utilizations, application of computer technologies and geoinformatics. Key Learning Outcomes Knowledge Theoretical as well as practical parts of the education are targeted at implementing, managing, organizing and assessing of all kinds of geological operations. The core of the study concentrates on the analysis of geological phenomena, assessment of economic and ecological aspects of geological activities, mining and industrial utilizations, application of computer technologies and geoinformatics. Skills Graduates are able to solve individually wide complex of geological and geoscience problems with utilization theory, concepts a methodology concern also problematic of related technical and geoscience fields. General Competencies Graduates are to decide individually in relation to new and varying circumstances, so as take into account wide social consequences. Occupational Profiles of Graduates Master studies is designed first of all for graduates of bachelor studies of geology, mining and geography. The Master's level focuses on gaining a deeper knowledge of applied geology. The basic study is accompanied by a professional profiling... [-]

Master in Geoinformatics

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 2 weeks September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

The aim is to prepare graduates who master professional subject matters from the sphere of geoinformatics and geoinformation technologies at the level that enables the creation of new applications of geoinformation technologies, project management and the management and administration of geoinformation systems, the implementation of the advanced analysis, and search for new ways to solve different spatial problems. [+]

Study Branch Geodesy, Cartography and Geoinformatics Branch Profile The aim is to prepare graduates who master professional subject matters from the sphere of geoinformatics and geoinformation technologies at the level that enables the creation of new applications of geoinformation technologies, project management and the management and administration of geoinformation systems, the implementation of the advanced analysis, and search for new ways to solve different spatial problems. These will be applicable in both the state and local governments as well as in the private sector (manager of the utilities, transport undertakings, companies involved in the collection and distribution of geodata, etc.). Key Learning Outcomes Knowledge Graduates are equipped with the knowledge from the area of digital processing of remote sensing data, planning of applications of geoinformation technologies, advanced methods of gathering, storing, analyzing, and publishing of data, modelling and simulation of geosciences problems, and from the area of entrepreneurship and management. Skills The graduate can plan and manage the application of geoinformation technologies and large databases of geodata, creating algorithms for the spatial problems solving, apply advanced statistical methods of processing of data, collaborate in creating models and simulation of spatial processes and in the use of geoweb technology. General Competencies The graduate can act in the role of the commercial agent, analyst for the needs of applications development and as geodata analyst, manager of large scale applications and databases of data, geoweb technology manager (mapservers and servers of geoweb services). Occupational Profiles of Graduates This study branch is ideal for... [-]

Master in European School for Brownfields Technical Redevelopment

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

The Master’s program of the European School for Technical Brownfields Redevelopment is an interdisciplinary 2 year study branch based on a combination of natural, economic and construction engineering sciences, including professional disciplines. The main aim of the branch is to prepare graduates to manage projects and work activities in the restoration and development of abandoned industrial areas, often called brownfields. [+]

Masters 2017/2018 in Ostrava Czech Republic. Study Branch Mineral Raw Materials Branch Profile The Master’s program of the European School for Technical Brownfields Redevelopment is an interdisciplinary 2 year study branch based on a combination of natural, economic and construction engineering sciences, including professional disciplines. The main aim of the branch is to prepare graduates to manage projects and work activities in the restoration and development of abandoned industrial areas, often called brownfields. Teaching and education has a base in scientific disciplines such as mathematics, physics and chemistry. It is expected that a bachelor’s study graduate has such knowledge. The study plan is composed of the compulsory subjects and electives that enable tailoring studies according to interests and professional intentions. Individual courses are designed to give students theoretical and practical knowledge to the extent of master study. Theoretical knowledge from lectures is developed further in field work, seminars, colloquia and exercises. The case study solutions that are discussed and dealt with in the professional colloquium and practical field works have a significant role in the educational process. The case studies are created in order to help students develop professional, systematic and independent work. Key Learning Outcomes Knowledge Graduates are equipped with complex knowledge in the fields: Landscape and nature conservation, their components and functions, Technical restoration of functions of landscape segments, Environmental assessment of brownfields, Civil engineering and technical assessment, Economical and socio-economical assessment, Remediation and regeneration of areas, Consultancy and expert activities and Environmental protection and design. Graduates are... [-]

Master in Thermal Engineering and Ceramic Materials

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

Master's degree course in Thermal Engineering and Ceramics follows the bachelor's program of the same name. Qualification subjects, compared to a bachelor's field, put more emphasis on the theoretical basis of the issues discussed, and a thorough elucidation of mutual connections of acquired knowledge. [+]

Study Branch Metallurgical Engineering Branch Profile Master's degree course in Thermal Engineering and Ceramics follows the bachelor's program of the same name. Qualification subjects, compared to a bachelor's field, put more emphasis on the theoretical basis of the issues discussed, and a thorough elucidation of mutual connections of acquired knowledge. A part of the field, besides components in the field of thermal technology and ceramic materials, are courses in metallurgy of steel and non-ferrous metals, steel materials, foundry, material engineering, economics and quality management. The aim of the study is education of experts, who are capable of dealing with the acquisition, use and management of energy, mostly thermal ones, even from non-traditional sources. In parallel, the aim of the study programme is the specialization of experts in the field of ceramic materials that are able to innovate the preparation technology, and decide about the application of materials in different conditions. Graduates are prepared to propose heat-technical equipment, especially in terms of energy savings and material composition with regard to environmental and economic aspects. Key Learning Outcomes Knowledge Graduates can characterize the technology of iron and steel foundry technology and forming technology of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Control the principles of the technology of iron and the steel foundry technology, and the technology of forming materials. Graduates is acquainted with the nature of combustion processes, thermal processes modeling and equipment balances and optimization of thermal plants by using waste energy, determination of heat loss and the possibilities to minimize them. Graduates... [-]

Master in Modern Metallurgical Technologies

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

The Master's Study Branch Modern Metallurgical Technology is designed as a modern study branch aimed at training professionals for current and highly sophisticated metallurgical technologies, covering in detail the issues of theory and technology of production, casting and processing of iron and steel or their forming, including the forming of non-ferrous metals and/or foundry of alloys based on both iron and non-ferrous metals. [+]

Masters 2017/2018 in Ostrava Czech Republic. Study Branch Metallurgical Engineering Branch Profile The Master's Study Branch Modern Metallurgical Technology is designed as a modern study branch aimed at training professionals for current and highly sophisticated metallurgical technologies, covering in detail the issues of theory and technology of production, casting and processing of iron and steel or their forming, including the forming of non-ferrous metals and/or foundry of alloys based on both iron and non-ferrous metals. In addition to these specialization areas, all graduates receive knowledge from the field of technical materials, industrial furnaces, preparation of non-ferrous metals and alloys, methods of planning and quality enhancement as well as managerial economics. Theoretical knowledge is complemented with a number of additional laboratory and computing practical exercises, in which the current laboratory technology is applied, and which address tasks related to metallurgical processes and their modelling. Theses are mainly focused on the selected study branches, or also partially extend to related study branches, such as Thermal Engineering and Ceramic Materials, or Materials Engineering. The study branch has a unique position in the structure of study fields at Czech universities. Key Learning Outcomes Knowledge Graduates can characterize advanced and contemporary technologies of iron and steel production, foundry technology and forming technology of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. They have a good command of the technological principles of the iron and steel production, foundry technology and technology of materials forming. Based on their professional specialization, consisting of an appropriate choice of study courses, graduates are able... [-]

Master in Automation and Computing in Industrial Technologies

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

The Branch is focused to the exploitation of computers and automation of technological processes above all in the metallurgical industry by application of knowledge in the field of theory of automated control, integrated computer systems, modern methods of control with exploitation of artificial intelligence and applied informatics and control of technological aggregates and processes. [+]

Study Branch Economics and Management of Industrial Systems Branch Profile The Branch is focused to the exploitation of computers and automation of technological processes above all in the metallurgical industry by application of knowledge in the field of theory of automated control, integrated computer systems, modern methods of control with exploitation of artificial intelligence and applied informatics and control of technological aggregates and processes. Key Learning Outcomes Knowledge advanced scientific methods of modelling, simulation and optimal control of dynamic systems, modern tools and techniques for designing and implementation of complex control systems based on programmable logic controllers, programming of information systems and modern control methods, detailed knowledge of industrial technologies, especially in the field of metallurgy and related technologies. Skills independent control of production and technological processes, particularly in the metallurgical enterprises ability of creative synthesis of gained technological knowledge in the field of metallurgy, knowledge of control methods and implementation of control and information systems, ability of independent analysis, design and implementation of control systems for technological processes especially in metallurgical industry field by means of application of modern computing, measurement and automation tools. General Competencies General competences within the scope defined by the national descriptors of the Czech qualifications framework with an emphasis on communication skills, management and organizational skills, ability to communicate in at least one foreign language, etc. Occupational Profiles of Graduates This unique engineering field of study follows on the bachelor’s study program and expands and deepens knowledge and practical abilities in the automation and... [-]

Master in Advanced Engineering Materials

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

In the Master’s study programme students firm and fill knowledge and skills acquired during bachelor study. Furthermore, they gain further knowledge and skills to be able to understand the depth and breadth of engineering materials in interrelationships. [+]

Masters 2017/2018 in Ostrava Czech Republic. Study Branch Materials Engineering Branch Profile The new Master’s study branch Advanced Engineering Materials in the study programme Materials Engineering is based on the integration of three former study branches: Engineering Materials, Materials Diagnostics and Design, Non-Ferrous Metals and Special Alloys. These study branches represented the principal study branches in the study programme Materials Engineering in the past. The Master’s study branch Advanced Engineering Materials picks up on the study branch having the same name in the bachelor study programme. In the Master’s study programme students firm and fill knowledge and skills acquired during bachelor study. Furthermore, they gain further knowledge and skills to be able to understand the depth and breadth of engineering materials in interrelationships. The conception of the new study branch is the following: There are fundamental subjects such as Physics of Solids, Phase Transformations, Degradation Processes of Materials, Surface Engineering, Computer Simulation and Modelling in Materials Engineering. These subjects are suitably combined with other subjects in order to fulfil the learning outcomes given hereinafter. It can be assumed that the new Master’s study branch Advanced Engineering Materials will become the most important study branch in the Master’s study programme Materials Engineering. Key Learning Outcomes Knowledge Graduates will have gained a deep knowledge of the subjects that represent an applied base of the study branch, e.g. physics of solids, phase transformations, degradation processes of materials, surface engineering etc. in such a level, which makes possible their application in other subjects and... [-]

Master in Marketing and Business

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

The Master’s degree Marketing and Business follows on from the Bachelor’s degree of the same name, deepening students’ knowledge of issues which are necessary for active influencing markets and the successful conducting marketing and business campaigns. [+]

Study Branch Economics and Management Branch Profile The Master’s degree Marketing and Business follows on from the Bachelor’s degree of the same name, deepening students’ knowledge of issues which are necessary for active influencing markets and the successful conducting marketing and business campaigns. Key Learning Outcomes Knowledge The philosophy of the degree curriculum is based on the potential future employment opportunities of graduates, and focuses especially on developing knowledge of marketing management, the market applications of marketing (international marketing, service marketing, business marketing) and business skills (sales management, purchase management, retail management, foreign trade operations). Teaching also includes advanced courses in marketing research and statistics. Skills Graduates find application as marketing and business managers, researchers and staff of advertising agencies, marketing consultants, public relations specialists, and in business to business markets, services, business firms in the consumer market and in public administration, and can also realize their business plans as individuals. General Competencies Graduates will be able to solve the partial nature of economic tasks and organize their solutions team. They are able to apply basic research methods and analysis of information processing as a basis for solving practical problems. Graduates will be able to solve the partial nature of economic tasks and organize their solutions team. It is able to apply basic research methods and analysis of information processing as a basis for solving practical problems. Graduates will be able to solve the partial nature of economic tasks and organize their solutions team. It is able to apply basic... [-]

Master in Finance

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

The objective master’s study in Finance is to prepare highly qualified experts able to solve analytical tasks and work at related managerial positions at middle and upper management in companies and institutions. [+]

Masters 2017/2018 in Ostrava Czech Republic. Study Branch Economic Policy and Administration Branch Profile The objective master’s study in Finance is to prepare highly qualified experts able to solve analytical tasks and work at related managerial positions at middle and upper management in companies and institutions. Study is structured and focused the way so that the graduates will practice in financial departments and in the financial management of non-financial institutions (production and business companies), financial institutions (commercial and investment banks, investment companies, insurance companies) and national economy (government and regional administration). Key Learning Outcomes Knowledge The base of study is to obtain knowledge in the following areas: - financial management and financial decision-making of the companies, costs management, calculations, prices, accounting and taxes, - financial and capital markets, commercial and investment banking, insurance companies, - financial decision-making under risk, investment decision-making, company valuation, financial modelling, tax theory, - financial, money and capital markets, commercial bank management, investment companies and insurance companies, derivatives valuation, financial assets portfolio management, - international finance, international financial institutions, financial systems, fiscal and tax systems, etc. Skills analyzing financial situation of a company solution of the financial management problems investment project valuation proposal of the price and costs calculations orientation in the managerial accounting understanding the principles of taxation and taxes orientation in area of banking and insurance understanding commercial bank management, investment companies and funds, instance etc property valuation, security valuation, company valuation financial models proposal, etc řízení portfolií finančních aktiv orientace v oblasti mezinárodních... [-]

Master in Nanotechnology

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

The Master‘s Study Branch of Nanotechnology is the second level of nanotechnology study following upon Bachelor’s study. [+]

Branch Profile The Master‘s Study Branch of Nanotechnology is the second level of nanotechnology study following upon Bachelor’s study. The study programme contains more advanced methods of the structural and properties’ study of nanomaterials, theoretical and experimental approaches. During the first year of study students may choose one of two orientations - physical or chemical. Both orientations have common fundamental theoretical and experimental subjects including modelling and computer design of nanomaterials. Key Learning Outcomes KNOWLEDGE The aim of the master‘s study of Nanotechnology is to provide advanced education of characterization and properties of nanomaterials. Students extend their knowledge of mathematics, physics and chemistry in specialized subjects as electron microscopy, magnetic and optic properties of nanomaterials. The programme includes study of the relationship between properties of nanomaterials and their structures and utility as well. Graduates will have gained detailed knowledge about modern methods of structure study (for example electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy etc.). SKILLS The graduates of Nanotechnology master‘s study can use specialized knowledge to solve practical problems. They can use advanced research methods in nanotechnology that allow them to obtain new information based on practice and theory. GENERAL COMPETENCIES Graduates are able to independently make responsible decisions to solve individual parts of a problem. They know how to solve practical problems with characterization and preparation of nanomaterials, can formulate the results of experiments and opinions of a research team in a report. They understand specialized literature and databases and can make use of this knowledge. Graduates are also able... [-]

Master in Mechatronic Systems

Technical University of Ostrava
Campus Full time 2 years September 2018 Czech Republic Ostrava

The aim of the study is to prepare graduates for research and development work, and design of mechatronic systems with applications in the various kinds of production and applied technologies. [+]

Masters 2017/2018 in Ostrava Czech Republic. Branch Profile The aim of the study is to prepare graduates for research and development work, and design of mechatronic systems with applications in the various kinds of production and applied technologies. Graduate profile includes methods for the integrated design of mechatronic systems which are composed from the mechanical and electronic subsystems, including actuators, sensors and control systems. Graduates are trained in computer aided modeling and computer simulation and design of control algorithms. Key Learning Outcomes KNOWLEDGE Graduates will have gained knowledge important for the design of mechatronic systems. SKILLS Graduates are able to analyse the dynamic properties of complex structured systems and use mathematical/physical modelling and simulation of dynamic systems. GENERAL COMPETENCIES The background from electrical, mechanical and control engineering allows graduates to work with complex structured systems and to consider the interaction of different dynamic subsystems in the design phase of the new mechatronic system, using the suitable control to achieve the required behaviour of the final system. Occupational Profiles of Graduates The multidisciplinary education is a great advantage for the work in different areas of engineering. Admission Requirements Determined by Dean, may include entrance examination, other formal documents. Graduation Requirement 120 ECTS Credits, Final state examination, Diploma thesis Course Structure Diagram with ECTS Credits List of courses is available at the detailed branch description page 30 ECTS credit per semester. [-]