Master's in Engineering & Technology in Netherlands

View Masters Programs in Engineering & Technology in Netherlands 2017

Engineering & Technology

In order to successfully obtain a Masters qualification, you will need to obtain a number of credits by passing individual modules. Most taught Masters will have a number of core modules which you must take and pass in order to obtain the qualification. The assessment of research Masters is almost always entirely by a single dissertation module or project.

Studies in engineering and technology prepare you for the technologically oriented workforce of today.

Members of the workforce with engineering and technology training are sought out by many industries including medical research and computer software development.

 

The people, language, and culture of the Netherlands is referred to as "Dutch". A modern European country today, Netherlands preserved its highly international character and is known for its liberal mentality. The Netherlands has many universities. The country has recently converted their own titles into the bachelor/master system. There are two types of universities: Academic (focussing more on theoretical knowledge, aka "Universiteit") or Applied Sciences (focussing more on practical knowledge, aka "Hogeschool")

Top Master Programs in Engineering & Technology in Netherlands 2017

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Master Sensor System Engineering (SSE)

Hanze University of Applied Sciences - Groningen, the Netherlands
Campus Full time 1 year September 2017 Netherlands Groningen

This master prepares you for a bright future in the fascinating world of advanced sensor applications. A domain that is rapidly growing, providing all kinds of interesting prospects for you, ambitious engineers. Within the globally important domain of health, sensor applications will provide totally new ways to monitor, heal, treat and care for people. [+]

Best Masters in Engineering & Technology in Netherlands 2017. Sensor System Engineering: www.hanzegroningen.eu/msse Passionate about technology and engineering? ​​ Are you open minded, do you like to stretch boundaries to find out what is out there? Can you apply yourself, developing new ways to move the technology ahead, specifically in the health domain? Then take a moment to consider the opportunity to join us for one year to complete the Sensor System Engineering (SSE) honours master's programme.​​​ Programme overview General knowledge about sensor applications needed for any type of specialisation Specialised knowledge involving sensors in the health domain Honours content Master's thesis project (30 ECTS) General knowledge about sensor applications needed for any type of specialisation Linear algebra (4 ECTS): mathematics required for the next modules. Advanced data analysis (4 ECTS): integrating data coming from multiple complex sensors and to interpret this data correctly Modelling & simulation (4 ECTS): theory and tools required to model complex systems and to analyse and represent simulated data. Data centric architectures (4 ECTS): the architectural design of sensor systems at the level of of system architectures for big data applications and at the level of digital signal processing (DSP). Specialised knowledge involving sensors in the health domain Products and services in Health (4 ECTS): using real cases to learn the full design process of a health related sensor system. Sensor applications in Health (3 ECTS): exploration of sensor applications in biology, technology, diagnostics and application in health environments like hospital and home care. Honours... [-]

Master Control Systems Engineering

HAN University of Applied Sciences
Campus Full time Part time 16 - 18 months September 2017 Netherlands Arnhem + 1 more

HAN's Masters course in Control Systems Engineering provides you with cutting-edge knowledge and techniques that can be directly used in an industrial [+]

Applying knowledge to the industrial environment HAN's Masters course in Control Systems Engineering provides you with cutting-edge knowledge and techniques that can be directly used in an industrial environment. Complex processes require advanced control systems. This Masters course focuses on advanced regulating systems used in industry, such as optimal and model predictive control devices and multi-variable non-linear control devices. You also learn about the latest methods of statistical analysis. Upon graduation you will be ready for a specialised career in systems engineering. Cooperation with companies and other universities Associated large industries and specialised companies all acknowledge the constant need for control systems engineers with a Masters qualification. This is reflected in the support given by companies like DNV GL (KEMA), Shell, IPCOS, OMRON, SKF and Tatasteel, who share their knowledge by providing trainers and facilitate many of our major projects and excursions. HAN also cooperates with other institutes and universities, such as Delft University of Technology, Wageningen University, Eindhoven University of Technology and Artemis/Edulab. As a result, teaching and laboratory facilities can be shared and students can benefit from guest lecturers. This also enables the level and content of the course to be continuously monitored. The course is recognised and supported by the Royal Institute of Engineers in the Netherlands. International focus This course is unique in the Netherlands in that it focuses on the translation of skills and knowledge taught at university to the real world. Many of our graduation projects are carried out in association with multinational companies... [-]

Master of Automotive Systems

HAN University of Applied Sciences
Campus Full time Part time 18 months September 2017 Netherlands Arnhem + 1 more

Based entirely on current demands and requirements in the field, the curriculum directly reflects major trends in the vehicle development industry. It focuses on exciting new developments such as intelligent vehicle systems (vehicle dynamics and control, driver [+]

Best Masters in Engineering & Technology in Netherlands 2017. Focus on latest trends in the industry Based entirely on current demands and requirements in the field, the curriculum directly reflects major trends in the vehicle development industry. It focuses on exciting new developments such as intelligent vehicle systems (vehicle dynamics and control, driver assistance) and advanced propulsion design (driveline and powertrain). This Masters course will provide you with skills and knowledge relevant to the latest developments in the automotive industry. The course is internationally oriented and taught entirely in English. A career in the automotive industry If you have attained your Bachelors in Automotive Engineering, Mechanical Engineering or Electrical Engineering and wish to further your education and career prospects in the automotive field, this Masters course is for you! The course prepares you for specific development and design positions. Areas within the industry that you can move into as a Masters graduate include software and test engineering, development and design engineering, applied research, production management, sales engineering and customer service. Master of Engineering in Automotive Systems HAN University of Applied Sciences has an excellent international reputation with over 60 years' experience in teaching and research in automotive technology. On successful completion of the course, you will be awarded a Master of Science. Full-time or part-time course taught in English The Masters course in Automotive Systems is taught entirely in English. You can combine your work and studies by choosing the part-time option. If you opt for studying full-time in the... [-]

European Master in Renewable Energy

Hanze University of Applied Sciences - Groningen, the Netherlands
Campus Full time 3 semesters September 2017 Netherlands Groningen

The European Master in Renewable Energy is a programme offered at the School of Engineering of Hanze UAS in cooperation with EUREC, aimed at training post-graduate students to fill the gap between growing industry demand for specialised renewable energy expertise and the skills currently available on the job market. [+]

European Master in Renewable Energy: www.hanzegroningen.eu/mre * Tuition fees: EU/EEA: € 2,006 (per year)/ NON-EU/EEA: € 11,500 (full tuition fee). However, an EU student already holding a Dutch master's degree will pay €7,300, for the full programme. ​​​​Within the rapidly expanding European renewable energy industry, an urgent demand exists for more post-graduate trained staff specialised in renewable energy technology. Together with leading European Universities, EUREC has developed the European Master in Renewable Energy. Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen (Hanze UAS), became member of the EUREC consortium and started this master programme in September 2012. Order our brochure now, or sign up for the open day.​ The aim of the European Master in Renewable Energy is to train post-graduate students to fill the gap between the growing industry demand for specialised renewable energy expertise and the skills currently available on the job market. By structuring the course in three sections, students are guaranteed to spend time in at least two different EU countries and make contact with a wide range of European universities and companies involved in the renewable energy sector. The participating universities are all well-established in training and research and recognised internationally for their work in the field of renewable energy technology. ​ Programme overview Core The first semester the student will acquire a solid foundation in key renewable energy technologies and the socio-economic issues related to these. For the core the student can choose one of the following universities: Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, the Netherlands... [-]

Master of Arts - Media, Art, Design & Tech​​nology

Hanze University of Applied Sciences - Groningen, the Netherlands
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Netherlands Groningen

What is MADTech (Media, Art, Design & Technology) all about? In a nutshell this is it: artists doing strange things with technology. This means you will embark on a master where anything is possible. You will view and create art in ways you can hardly imagine beforehand. You will carry out experiments, tinkering and playing with technology, ideas and media. [+]

Best Masters in Engineering & Technology in Netherlands 2017. Fine Arts – Media, Art, Design & Technology (MADtech): www.hanzegroningen.eu/madtech What is MADTech (Media, Art, Design & Technology) all about? In a nutshell this is it: artists doing strange things with technology. This means you will embark on a master where anything is possible. You will view and create art in ways you can hardly imagine beforehand. You will carry out experiments, tinkering and playing with technology, ideas and media. You will explore the most outrageous possibilities the combination of art and technology have to offer. Central to this master are your artistic development and attitude towards research. By combining a critical reflective attitude and conceptual skills, you will discover unexpected perspectives, resulting in exciting multimedia works of art. Order our brochure here . Throughout this master you will explore viewpoints from the past, present and future, broadening the way you think and look at the world. You will discover connections between art and science, laboratory and applied research, stable and unstable media, old and new technology, local and global forms of society. This is a collective process: you will share ideas and insights with your fellow students, learning how others see the world. Inspiring each other to look beyond borders and to venture away from the beaten track. At the same time you will extend your knowledge, master new skills and reflect on your role as an artist. This master attracts students from a lot of different backgrounds, countries and... [-]

SpaceTech – Master of Engineering in Space Systems and Business Engineering

Graz University of Technology (TU Graz)
Campus Part time 18 months October 2017 Netherlands Noordwijk

Through the university programme "SpaceTech", participants are trained by experts in the fields of Space Systems and Business Engineering and prepared to take on key roles and management responsibilities in the international environment of the space industry. [+]

The aerospace sector is a fast growing market. Multinational corporations are conducting research on cutting-edge technology to successfully develop new products and services. Some examples include satellite services in the communication, navigation and remote sensing fields, aerospace transportation, space tourism or the future mining of extraterrestrial materials. Through the university programme "SpaceTech", participants are trained by experts in the fields of Space Systems and Business Engineering and prepared to take on key roles and management responsibilities in the international environment of the space industry. Quick Facts Duration: 3 semesters (18 months) Final degree: Master of Engineering (MEng) in Space Systems and Business Engineering ECTS credits: 90 Language of instruction: English Participation fee: 34,000 € (VAT-free) This fee does not include costs for travel, accommodation or food. Number of participants: limited to 20 Course location: European Space Centers: TU Graz, Austria CNES Toulouse, France ESA ECSAT Harwell, Great Britain DLR GSOC Munich, Germany ESA ESRIN Frascati, Italy ESA ESTEC Noordwijk, the Netherlands Content You gain comprehensive knowledge on the current state of international research in the following fields: Applied Project Management for Space Systems Business Engineering Space Mission Analysis and Design Telecommunications Earth Observation Systems Engineering Navigation Human Space Flight In addition, you acquire leadership and social skills, perform case studies (Central Case Project – CCP) and complete a Master’s thesis. The course content is taught by internationally recognized experts from the respective fields. Target Groups The university programme is appropriate for Experts with several years of experience working in the... [-]

Master in Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence

Tilburg University
Campus Full time 1 year August 2017 Netherlands Tilburg

The Master's track in Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence provides you with a deep understanding of human cognition and communication, as well as the creative and technical skills to apply this knowledge in Artificial Intelligence solutions and applications. [+]

Best Masters in Engineering & Technology in Netherlands 2017. Master in Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence The Master's track in Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence provides you with a deep understanding of human cognition and communication, as well as the creative and technical skills to apply this knowledge in Artificial Intelligence solutions and applications. Become an expert in the application of Artificial Intelligence in human cognition and communication

Are you interested in applications of Artificial Intelligence in communication techniques? Are you triggered by the question of how human reasoning can be represented in computer systems? Would you like to work for a company like Google or Philips? Then our interdisciplinary Master’s track Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence is your right choice! The CSAI program draws on breakthrough discoveries and insights in the two closely related scientific disciplines Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence. Cognitive Science is the study of human reasoning, emotions, language, perception, attention, and memory. Artificial Intelligence is the study and design of computers and software that are capable of intelligent behavior. Why Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence in Tilburg? Study and design at the intersection of Artificial Intelligence software and human cognition and communication Gain a deep understanding of Artificial Intelligence: the study and design of computers and software that are capable of intelligent behavior - drawing inspiration and applications from cognitive science: the study of thought, learning and mental organization concerning different types of psychological processes; such as those involved in attention, decision making, language... [-]

Master in Software and Service Architectures (SSA)

EIT Digital Master School
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Netherlands Eindhoven

The programme in Software and Service Architectures is an enhanced version of the previous programme on Service Design and Engineering and aims to educate the next generation of service designers and software architects capable of designing and engineering novel software systems to: (i) Drive digitalization of businesses, (ii) Create new businesses based on software intensive services, (iii) Be responsible for the elicitation and definition of what software products and services IT companies should create in order to be successful; (iv) Be responsible for the processes and methods for the effective development of modern software systems. [+]

Formerly known as: Service, Design and Engineering SDE) Why study the EIT Digital Software and Service Architectures programme? The EIT Digital SSA programme offers: Innovative and well grounded education for the next generation of service designers and software architects. Studies at two of Europe´s foremost technical universities leading to a double degree. A good integration with tailored courses in Innovation and Entrepreneurship. A thesis work connected to interesting industrial challenges. Access to the competence of eight EIT Digital innovation action lines (link) not least through a summer school between the two years. Access to the co-location centres and innovation ecosystems of the nine EIT Digital nodes. What is the programme all about? The programme in Software and Service Architectures is an enhanced version of the previous programme on Service Design and Engineering and aims to educate the next generation of service designers and software architects capable of designing and engineering novel software systems to: (i) Drive digitalization of businesses, (ii) Create new businesses based on software intensive services, (iii) Be responsible for the elicitation and definition of what software products and services IT companies should create in order to be successful; (iv) Be responsible for the processes and methods for the effective development of modern software systems. The SSA programme is an interdisciplinary programme that offers courses to enable graduates to take on the following challenges: What software-based businesses should be developed (user centric needs and business focused opportunities) How should software be developed (modern and agile software engineering methodologies... [-]

Master in Security and Privacy (S&P)

EIT Digital Master School
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Netherlands Eindhoven

The programme in Security and Privacy focusses on the study of the design, development and evaluation of secure computer systems, which are also capable of ensuring privacy for future ICT systems. It follows a constructive security approach to teach the very complex and challenging field of information assurance. [+]

Best Masters in Engineering & Technology in Netherlands 2017. Why study the EIT Digital Security & Privacy programme? The EIT Digital Security & Privacy programme offers: Front line technical content within the field. Studies at two of Europe´s foremost technical universities leading to a double degree. A good integration with tailored Business courses in Innovation and Entrepreneurship. A thesis work well grounded in industrial problems. Access to the competence of eight EIT Digital innovation action lines, not least through a summer school between the two years. Access to the co-location centers and innovation ecosystems of the nine EIT Digital nodes. What is the programme all about? The programme in Security and Privacy focusses on the study of the design, development and evaluation of secure computer systems, which are also capable of ensuring privacy for future ICT systems. It follows a constructive security approach to teach the very complex and challenging field of information assurance. The aim is to provide students with an understanding of the concepts and technologies for achieving confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, and privacy protection for information processed across networks. What are the career opportunities for graduates from the programme? Graduates from the Security & Privacy master’s programme will qualify for jobs in international and local organizations in both technical and business roles. Typical titles are: (Cyber) Security consultant; Security Analyst; (Information) Security Architect; Operation Manager; Product Manager. Through their multidisciplinary attitude graduates are valuable in open innovation settings where different aspects (market, users, social aspects, media technologies) come... [-]

Master in Internet Technology and Architecture (ITA)

EIT Digital Master School
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Netherlands Eindhoven

The ITA master is a new European two-year master programme within the EIT Digital Master School “ICT Innovation”. The aim of the EIT (European Institute of Innovation and Technology) is to breed a new generation of technology-skill [+]

The ITA master is a new European two-year master programme within the EIT Digital Master School “ICT Innovation”. The aim of the EIT (European Institute of Innovation and Technology) is to breed a new generation of technology-skilled entrepreneurs by enhancing high-profile technology education with a strong business orientation. For the field of ICT, the EIT has created through the KIC ICT Labs (one of the Knowledge and Innovation Communities), several ICT master programmes to combine ICT engineering on an advanced level with a business minor focused on Innovation and Entrepreneurship (I&E). The goal is to make students that take part in this education the elite group of forthcoming ICT professionals. The unique features of this advanced level education are: A standardized I&E minor Mobility among universities (one year at one university and the second year at another university) Specialisation at one of the European top universities Personal industrial relationships for the students, including industrial mentors and internships at EIT Digital non-university partners as part of the study plan. Thematic area grounding and utilization of resources from EIT Digital research and business activities There are seven ICT programmes (majors), one of them is Internet Technology and Architecture (ITA) offered by a consortium of UPMC (Paris), TUB (Berlin), KTH (Stockholm), UNITN (Trento), UNS (Nice), ITA/TB (Brest) and UPM (Madrid). The first year consists of one semester of core courses on ITA and one semester on Entrepreneurial education. For the second year, students can select a specialisation and complete a thesis project at... [-]

Master in Human Computer Interaction and Design (HCID)

EIT Digital Master School
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Netherlands Eindhoven

The programme in Human Computer Interaction and Design focuses on study, design, development and evaluation of novel user interfaces and interactive systems taking into account human aspects, at the cognitive and sensory-motor levels, technological aspects, as well as business aspects. [+]

Best Masters in Engineering & Technology in Netherlands 2017. Why study the EIT Digital Human Computer Interaction and Design programme? The EIT Digital HCID programme offers: Front line technical content within the field Studies at two of Europe´s foremost technical universities leading to a double degree. A good integration with tailored Business courses in Innovation and Entrepreneurship A thesis work well grounded in industrial problems Access to the competence of eight EIT Digital innovation action lines at least through a summer school between the two years. Access to the co-location centers and innovation ecosystems of the nine EIT Digital nodes. What is the programme all about? The programme in Human Computer Interaction and Design focuses on study, design, development and evaluation of novel user interfaces and interactive systems taking into account human aspects, at the cognitive and sensory-motor levels, technological aspects, as well as business aspects. The HCID programme is an interdisciplinary programme that offers courses on design and evaluation of interactive systems with a strong emphasis on user-centered design techniques: understanding the human capacities and consequences of using information technology as a tool for solving work related tasks, and developing and evaluating the systems by putting the user at the center of the design process. In addition, the program will create a business thinking in terms of user profiles, user segments, house style, branding, and market development and product introductions. What are the career opportunities for graduates from the programme? Graduates from the HCID master’s programme will qualify for... [-]

Master in Embedded Systems (ES)

EIT Digital Master School
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Netherlands Eindhoven

Embedded systems are everywhere. More than 98% of the world’s processors are located in embedded systems. Applications include a wide variety of industrial and personal systems such as satellites, robots, cars, airplanes, elevators, mobile telephones, washing machines, and health-care equipment just to mention a few. [+]

Why study Embedded Systems? Embedded systems are everywhere. More than 98% of the world’s processors are located in embedded systems. Applications include a wide variety of industrial and personal systems such as satellites, robots, cars, airplanes, elevators, mobile telephones, washing machines, and health-care equipment just to mention a few. In all these areas, embedded systems confer added value to the products by either extending the range of the delivered functionalities or by enhancing the quality of a “traditional” functionality that is rendered to the user. What are the career opportunities for Embedded Systems graduates? Many European companies are world leading in the field of embedded systems design and have a strong demand for highly skilled, creative engineers, innovators, system architects, and specialists. Europe also needs brand new companies that are able to provide innovative embedded solutions to address societal challenges, to improve the quality of life, and to boost the European economy and leadership. Why Embedded Systems at EIT Digital? "I found my masters course with EIT Digital very involving and fulfilling. It gave me access to two of the top universities in Europe and it's faculties. The business part of the programme helped me to envision my technical learning as real world applications and business opportunities." Shriraam Mohan, 2013 Cohort What is Embedded Systems Master at EIT Digital all about? The Embedded Systems programme focuses on enabling technologies and design methodologies for computing systems which are embedded as integral part of larger systems, designed for specific control functions of... [-]

Master in Data Science (DSC)

EIT Digital Master School
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Netherlands Eindhoven

Data abounds: social media, manufacturing systems, medical devices, logistic services, and countless others generate petabytes of data on a daily basis. With a wealth of data available, we are at a point in history, where we can conduct analyses to detect, discover, and, ultimately, better understand the world around us. [+]

Best Masters in Engineering & Technology in Netherlands 2017. Why study Data Science? Data abounds: social media, manufacturing systems, medical devices, logistic services, and countless others generate petabytes of data on a daily basis. With a wealth of data available, we are at a point in history, where we can conduct analyses to detect, discover, and, ultimately, better understand the world around us. What are the carier opportunities for Data Science graduates? Become a professional for a career in a highly innovative area: data science. The profession in Data Science is hailed as the “… Sexiest Job of the 21st Century,” by Harvard Business Review in October 2012. The Data Scientist is a professional who simultaneously possesses breadth and depth in scalable data management, data analysis, and domain area expertise, and who is capable of solving real-world problems. This is an opportune time to pursue training in both a challenging and rewarding new field. Join us and embark on a journey of a lifetime! Why Data Science at EIT Digital? Getting value, meaning and answering big questions, are the ultimate goals of Learning Data Science at EIT Digital. Mazen Aly Data Science Master student Eindhoven University of Technology Study Data Science at EIT Digital, where education is provided by renowned universities and where entrepreneurial data scientists of the future are come to being! Farideh Heidari Data Science Coordinator What is Data Science Master at EIT Digital all about? The newly established Data Science Master’s offers a unique academic programme, whereby... [-]

Master in Cloud Computing and Services (CCS)

EIT Digital Master School
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Netherlands Eindhoven

The programme in Cloud Computing and Services focuses on a broad range of applications like electronic commerce, mobile services, online social networks, peer-to-peer systems and Web services. [+]

The programme in Cloud Computing and Services focuses on a broad range of applications like electronic commerce, mobile services, online social networks, peer-to-peer systems and Web services. What is common to all of these applications is that information sources and control are decentralised over the network and multiple data centres and their underlying systems become distributed, reconfigurable and adaptive. All this makes the process of developing distributed software systems significantly more complex than for centralised systems. Cloud Computing and Services will provide students with a system of knowledge both in formal foundations, technological platforms and practical skills in implementing distributed software applications. The programme will also provide an insight into current and future directions of the distributed software development. After completion of the study, students understand and know how to use large distributed systems. On top of this they are also capable of designing and constructing cloud computing systems and services on networking and computing infrastructures. The programme will offer six specialisations: (1) Mobile Services, (2) Cloud and Data Analytics, (3) Cloud Infrastructures, (4) Data Intensive Computing, (5) Distributed Information Management, (6) Distributed Data Processing. Programme During the first year, a similar set of courses are offered at the four involved entry points Aalto University, TU Berlin, University Rennes 1 and TU Delft. This includes distributed systems, advanced network technologies, service technologies and cloud programming models. In addition, some elective cours-es may be chosen to prepare for a specialisation. An important part of the programme are the Innovation and &... [-]

Master in Digital Media Technology (DMT)

EIT Digital Master School
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Netherlands Eindhoven

The programme in Digital Media Technology focuses on enabling technologies for digital media systems, including technologies for analysing media, generating interactive media, processing and coding, optimising wired and wireless transfer, and distributing digital 3D contents. [+]

Best Masters in Engineering & Technology in Netherlands 2017. The programme in Digital Media Technology focuses on enabling technologies for digital media systems, including technologies for analysing media, generating interactive media, processing and coding, optimising wired and wireless transfer, and distributing digital 3D contents. Graduates of the DMT programme will be both specialists and innovators that are able to shape future digital media technology. The first year will be similar at both DMT entry point universities KTH and TU Delft with four basic courses on signal processing, computer graphics, web services, and communication networks. The second year will accommodate the technical specialisation. The programme will offer six specialisations: (1) Hypermedia, (2) Media Processing and Communications, (3) Medical Imaging, (4) Media Communications Services, (5) Virtual Environments, (6) Semantic Media. Programme The first year is similar at the two entry points with four basic courses on signal processing, computer graphics, programming web services and internet communication. In addition, some elective courses may be chosen to prepare for a specialisation. An important part of the programme are the Innovation & Entrepreneurship (I&E) courses. The I&E basics course provides an introduction to business and management. The Business Development Lab extends media systems engineering projects by a market survey, a business model generation process, and a venture development exercise. We emphasize user driven innovation and holistic analysis of service, technology, organisation and financial perspectives, as new media technologies are disruptive for existing business models and almost always have a significant impact on the culture and... [-]