Masters Programs in Engineering & Technology

Compare 1090 Masters Programs in Engineering & Technology

Engineering & Technology

Engineering and Technology fascinates people with still better and more exciting inventions, produced by applying theoretical knowledge to ideas that aim to stun the world with artificial objects of great value and capacity. A Master in Engineering and Technology is the first step toward this rewarding career.

Engineering is not only a profession of applying mathematical, economic, social and practical knowledge to build machines and devices, but it is art as well. Art and ability to use one's imagination, one's dreams and the wildest ideas to create, not just build, wonders that are about to shake the world with shock of excitement and joy. A Master in Engineering and Technology includes the fields of Computer Sciences and Information Technology (IT), Electronics and Telecommunications, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Architecture and Materials Science, and these almost create miracles for the benefit of humanity. A Master in Engineering and Technology program is perfect for anyone who is bright, ambitious, creative and able in natural sciences on one hand and not afraid of difficult and at first impression impossible problems and tasks on the other hand.

Read more about the Master in Engineering and Technology programs below to find the ones you like best. We can help you contact the school in just one click and have even more detailed information about the programs sent directly to your inbox. Start the search for your future Master in Engineering and Technology degree right away!

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Master In Production And Improvement In Industrial Processes

OBS Business School
Online Full time Part time 12 months May 2017 Spain Barcelona + 1 more

The Master in Production and Industrial Process Improved OBS Business School pays special attention to planning resources, the definition of a good strategy of industrial organization and in product innovation and production processes. In addition, the program along different ways to manage change through projects will be studied by ... [+]

Masters in Engineering & Technology. Master in Production Management and Process Improvement In industrial companies, the Production Management is a key position whose good management directly impacts the performance of the company and, therefore, is a critical success factor in achieving competitive advantage through continuous innovation in industrial processes . The Master in Production and Industrial Process Improved OBS Business School pays special attention to planning resources, the definition of a good strategy of industrial organization and in product innovation and production processes. In addition, the program along various forms of managing change through projects, with particular emphasis on monitoring and control of production and management skills development will be studied. The program was new in 2014, with great success in its 1st call. The program offers an outstanding range of educational proposals, as Webinars with Danone, Grupo Irizar, Dorje Dondrup, etc. It also incorporates a DISC Development of the most important skills in the area of ​​knowledge module. Participants also have access to a powerful industrial benchmarking (INCO-I), with which we can measure the degree of excellence of its production plant. Professional outings Some of the career options you can choose to, among others, are: Director of operations Industrial Director Head of Plant / Factory Manager Address Process Engineering Director of Operational Excellence Continuous improvement Responsible Head of Lean Manufacturing Kaizen responsible Responsible Supply Chain / suppliers Approval Objectives of Master in Production Management and Process Improvement What goals are going to get? To offer a comprehensive vision of... [-]

MA In Design And Product Development

Escuela Superior de Diseño de Barcelona
Online Full time 12 months November 2017 Spain Barcelona

Meet the tools necessary for the generation of a product from the first contact with the company through the different stages of development. [+]

How should an object? Think how it must have, for example, a chair, without having assessed before anything that affects our future chair itself, or in essence, the idea of ​​"gimmick" to support the buttocks; not only would like to start the cart before the horse, we would risk that it would be useless. Would he then meet our "gimmick" your goal? Clearly, an object must be beautiful to generate attraction to the potential consumer; but what value would generate a more beautiful chair, if uncomfortable, does not fit well with the table, mars the pavement when I move, does not fit the budget of the company, ... Worthless. Whenever not clearly specify the briefing we had to do an uncomfortable chair; for example, for a visitor not feel at ease and leave quickly. In this master's degree in product design propose understand how not the objective, but as a consequence. When all factors to consider (business, social context, target audience, usability, functionality, ...) are determined and analyzed by the student, the form will cease to be somewhat arbitrary. The program provides industrial design tools needed for the generation of a product from the first contact with the company through the different stages of development. GOALS The main objectives of this program are: To provide the knowledge and skills to create new objects. Training the ability to create creative, formally and conceptually innovative products. Learn to make and justify decisions that affect the outcome. Develop their own methodologies for the... [-]

Master In Mobile Business: Technologies, And Mobile Marketing Apps

IEBS - Escuela de Negocios de la Innovación y los Emprendedores
Online Full time 750 hours October 2017 Spain Barcelona

Master in Mobile Business: Technologies, Apps and Mobile Marketing is an innovative program that prepares you to know in depth the potential of devices, technologies and communication channels and mobile marketing, with the aim of transferring them to business strategy to achieve competitive advantages and new opportunities for business development. [+]

Masters in Engineering & Technology. Master in Mobile Business: Technologies, Apps and Mobile Marketing is an innovative program that prepares you to know in depth the potential of devices, technologies and communication channels and mobile marketing, with the aim of transferring them to business strategy to achieve competitive advantages and new opportunities for business development. Knowing how the user behaves with a smartphone, meet new analysis variables such as geolocation, new distribution channels and marketing and new models of effective business, it is key to integrating this new technology as disruptive in the business world. The Master of Mobile Business & Marketing provides training for professionals who want to learn to get the most out of all the opportunities the mobile environment offers organizations and entrepreneurs. What will I learn? Upon completion of the Master in Mobile Business: Technologies, Apps and Mobile Marketing you will be perfectly able to: Acquire a clear view on the framework of existing mobile technology today with its advantages and disadvantages. Gain knowledge regarding the fundamentals of mobile programming. Have the tools and knowledge necessary for generating successful business models in the field of mobile technologies. Acquire the necessary skills for creating and managing mobile technology-based companies. Get the ability to design and implement professional success strategies. To whom it May concern? The Master in Mobile Business: Technologies, Apps and Mobile Marketing provides training specifically geared to the following profiles: Professionals who want to set up platforms accessible from mobile devices. Entrepreneurs who want to... [-]

MRes Computer Science

Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University
Campus Full time 18 months September 2017 China Suzhou

The MRes (Master of Research) in Computer Science programme is designed to develop students’ understanding of the research process and their ability to carry out research. [+]

Overview The MRes Computer Science programme is designed to develop your understanding of the research process. It is for graduates from a computer-related discipline who wish to investigate research as a possible career, or who wish to extend their knowledge of one particular facet of computing. This programme provides you with an MRes that allows you to focus on your desired specialism, whilst our international staff provide all necessary support. Graduates of this programme, as with all XJTLU masters degrees, earn a University of Liverpool degree that is recognised by the Chinese Ministry of Education. Knowledge and skills The MRes Computer Science programme will equip you with comprehensive knowledge and understanding of: • advanced theoretical fundamentals of current trends in computer science • state-of-the-art key research issues in specialised areas of computer science • techniques for project management and the design, implementation and evaluation of IT solutions. Modules You will complete four taught modules in the first semester, followed by a research project for a total duration of 18 months. The precise content of your research project will be discussed and decided with your project supervisor and is subject to approval. Core modules: • Research methods • Project management • Dissertation. Elective modules: • Cloud computing • Data mining and Big Data analytics • Interactive systems • Object-oriented programming. Additional learning activity modules Careers Graduates from this programme will find employment as research and development engineers, systems developers and project leaders in IT companies, or will go on to further... [-]

Master in Data Science

Bologna Business School
Campus Full time 12 months December 2017 Italy Bologna

The Master in Data Science is designed for recent graduates interested in management and data analysis and who would like to take on a role which is central to any business and its value creation. A Data Scientist has already become one of the most sought-after specialists in the professional world. [+]

Masters in Engineering & Technology. The Master in Data Science is designed for recent graduates interested in management and data analysis and who would like to take on a role which is central to any business and its value creation. A Data Scientist has already become one of the most sought-after specialists in the professional world. The data business is becoming a key sector for the European economy, the development of products and services based on data and the analysis of data collected in companies, public entities or that are available on social networks. The aim being to obtain operational indications and to identify new business opportunities. Big Data is a big challenge of today’s world, but we are training professionals to understand and create value from this complex information. Companies, in fact, have both a need and an urgency to manage the acquisition, presentation, sharing, analysis and visualization of data. Data Scientist is defined by the Economist as “the most interesting job of the twenty-first century, combining the skills of an IT technician, statistician and storyteller to extract the golden nuggets hidden under the mountains of data.” The Master in Data Science offers 3 different types of skills: solid computer training, an understanding of the technological aspects and knowledge of business dynamics. This Master creates professionals with across-the-board skills who are able to integrate with the company’s management. The program concludes with a Field Laboratory Work and a company internship. THE MASTER IS AN INVESTMENT. THE HONOR LOAN IS... [-]

ME Materials Science & Engineering

UCD College of Engineering and Architecture
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Ireland Dublin

The ME in Materials Science and Engineering provides engineers with a specialist education and training in the area of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites for industrial engineering applications from biomedical device manufacture to future energy solutions. [+]

ME Materials Science & Engineering Graduate Taught (level 9 nfq, credits 120) The ME in Materials Science and Engineering provides engineers with a specialist education and training in the area of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites for industrial engineering applications from biomedical device manufacture to future energy solutions. This Masters is accredited by both Engineers Ireland and the IOM3 (UK). Graduates from this programme will be fully qualified professional engineers, capable of working anywhere in the world at an advanced technical level. Focus on real-world materials used for the manufacture of advanced engineered components and systems such as biomedical implants. Integrated theoretical, conceptual and practical knowledge. Technical research project in collaboration with world leading research groups and researchers. Who should apply? Full Time option suitable for: Domestic(EEA) applicants: Yes International (Non EEA) applicants currently residing outside of the EEA Region. Yes A bachelors degree with a minimum upper second class honours (NFQ level 8) or international equivalence in a relevant Engineering programme. Engineering or science graduates from any cognate discipline who are seeking to specialise in materials science and engineering at postgraduate level Course Description Materials Scientists and Engineers are at the centre of virtually every area of technology from optoelectronics to space materials and from automotive and aeromotive manufacturing to biomedical devices. Graduates from this programme will be fully qualified professional engineers, capable of working anywhere in the world at an advanced technical level or as a professional engineering manager. Graduates will also have specialist training in underlying scientific... [-]

Master in Applied and Industrial Mathematics

Towson University - College of Business & Economics
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Towson

Towson's Master of Science (MSc.) in applied and industrial mathematics (APIM) prepares you for high-demand careers in industry, government and academia. The APIM program emphasizes mathematical modeling, numerical computations, chaotic dynamics, queuing systems, financial systems and statistical analysis. [+]

Masters in Engineering & Technology. Why Earn a Master's Degree in Applied and Industrial Mathematics? Towson's Master of Science in applied and industrial mathematics (APIM) prepares you for high-demand careers in industry, government and academia. The APIM program emphasizes mathematical modeling, numerical computations, chaotic dynamics, queuing systems, financial systems and statistical analysis. You will apply your knowledge outside of the classroom in a variety of research and internship opportunities. A Degree that Works The graduate program emphasizes numerical, algorithmic and computational problem-solving methods, and prepares you for careers in operations research, stochastic modeling, financial data analysis, statistics and more. The Applied and Industrial Mathematic Program offers two tracks. In the APIM you choose to focus your studies in either Differential Equations/Optimization or Applied Statistics/Mathematical Finance. If you prefer to study part-time you can take advantage of the program's flexible evening schedule. Advance Your Career Unlike most graduate programs in mathematics, Towson's applied master's gives you hands-on training through capstone coursework and required applied research projects. You will gain professional experience and learn to apply your skills in a two-term intern¬ship. Internship opportunities include projects in local industry or government and on-campus projects with faculty. Take the Lead With access to Towson's innovative Applied Mathematics Lab (AML), M.S. you gain leadership experience while working with undergraduates and faculty on research projects sponsored by corporations and government agencies. Past sponsors include Westinghouse Electrical Corporation, Citicorp of Maryland, Blue Cross-Blue Shield, Bell Atlantic, the Science Application International Corporation and the National Institute of... [-]

Master in Information Design

Domus Academy
Campus Full time 12 months September 2017 Italy Milan USA San Diego + 2 more

The Master in Information Design has a multidisciplinary approach that brings together visual design, data analysis and creative coding. Students will develop a skillset and a mindset to understand different cultural, social and economic contexts, translate complex information into engaging visual forms and narratives that are readable by different audiences, to support comprehensive communication strategies. [+]

Creating strong insights while transforming data into narrations. Nurturing accessible complex information. We are surrounded by a large amount of data to be interpreted, analyzed and represented. Information Design is a growing discipline strongly required by private companies, social enterprises and government agencies to crunch, interpret and visualize data for effective internal communications and public relations. The Master in Information Design has a multidisciplinary approach that brings together visual design, data analysis and creative coding. Students will develop a skillset and a mindset to understand different cultural, social and economic contexts, translate complex information into engaging visual forms and narratives that are readable by different audiences, to support comprehensive communication strategies. Audience The program is addressed to candidates who have a first-level degree and/or professional experience in Product Design, Visual and Graphic Design, Media and Web Design, Architecture, Computer Science, Engineering. The program is also open to candidates who hold a degree or diploma in Communication Science, Psychology, Sociology, or equivalent, if they are motivated by a sound research interest towards the program’s topics and a strong portfolio. Outcome Graduates from the Master in Information Design may seek employment at established firms, such as large corporations, service companies, design consultancy, as well as NGO’s, government agencies, research institutions, or start their own consulting business. Graduates can occupy a position in the following fields: Digital Design, Data Visualization and Information Mapping, Visual Design and Branding, Trend Forecasting. Program The Master in Information Design program is workshop-based, supported by seminars, lectures, tutorials,... [-]

Master on Ship Operation & Naval Engineering - AMASONE

Centrale Nantes
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 France Nantes

Two of the top French Technical Universities have teamed up to offer you a unique opportunity to learn naval engineering and become an engineer experienced in ship operation. [+]

Masters in Engineering & Technology. Master on Ship Operation & Naval Engineering Two of the top French Technical Universities have teamed up to offer you a unique opportunity to learn naval engineering and become an engineer experienced in ship operation. At Ecole Centrale Nantes we provide high-level naval engineer training programme. You will have access to experimental facilities such as towing tank, wave tank, internal combustion engine test benches. In collaboration École Navale in Lanvéoc-Poulmic close to Brest is the French Naval Academy where French Navy officers are trained. In Ecole Navale we deliver a serious scientific training, navigation knowledge and maritime environment. The outstanding strength of this master program is that you will have on-board training sessions on French Navy vessels. You will get an insight of on-board practice to serve complex equipment and to fit in with the quick evolution of knowledge and techniques which is highly valuable for a naval engineer and of course highly regarded by industrial employers. 100% English Master! Besides this technical and scientific know-how, you will learn about the French culture and language as well. Skills Scientific core: Being able to model and understand the concepts of hydrodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat machine to interact and take part in development projects of naval systems. Experiment: ability to implement and validate an experimental approach about maritime and naval engineering problems. Operational implementation: ability to integrate the constraints of operational implementation approaches in design and validation of naval systems. Application knowledge: ability to interact at... [-]

Master of IT in Business (MITB)

Singapore Management University
Campus or Online Full time Part time 1 - 2 years Open Enrollment Singapore

The definitive Master of IT in Business (MITB) programme will give you an unparalleled edge with the knowledge of data, processes, technologies [+]

The definitive Master of IT in Business (MITB) programme will give you an unparalleled edge with the knowledge of data, processes, technologies and management strategies. With two unique specialisation tracks to choose from, you will be poised to lead the industry in a time of transformation. Financial Services Track: Singapore's increasing stature as Asia's banking and financial hub demands a new breed of business IT professionals for a rapidly growing Financial Services sector. SMU MITB (FS) is an intensive programme designed to groom world-class professionals adept in process management, operations, technology solutions and innovation strategies. Its curriculum, with inputs from over 60 industry experts, provides in-depth knowledge of business methods and management concepts for the Technology and Operations group. MITB (FS) is aimed at T&O professionals wanting to enhance their knowledge to advance their career and for other professionals aspiring to embark on banking T&O careers. Analytics Track: In a competitive environment, marshalling Business Intelligence and Data Analytics on a real-time basis to make decisions, create value and develop a sustained competitive advantage is imperative. SMU MITB (AT) is Asia's first professional masters programme to meet this demand. Co-designed by leading global and regional sector firms from hospitality, tourism, supply chain, retail, healthcare, public sector and telecommunications, it promises a robust and systematic understanding across processes, operations, data, technology solutions and management supervision. It is aimed at professionals with a background in Computer Science, Information Systems, IT, Engineering or the Sciences. Analytics Track (Blended Learning): MITB Analytics Blended Learning aims... [-]

Master of Management in Information Systems

Jon M. Huntsman School of Business, Utah State University
Campus Full time 12 - 16 months September 2017 USA Logan

The MMIS program at the Jon M. Huntsman School of Business is an innovative, project-based program designed to address business problems through the use of technology. It carries a STEM designation (29-month work option after graduation) in database management and analytics, consistently attracting many talented students from around the world. [+]

Masters in Engineering & Technology. Why MMIS? The MMIS program at the Jon M. Huntsman School of Business is an innovative, project-based program designed to address business problems through the use of technology. It carries a STEM designation (29-month work option after graduation) in database management and analytics, consistently attracting many talented students from around the world. Extensive Database and Data Analytics The main focus of the MMIS program relates to Big Data, Database Management, and Data Analytics. Gaining insight into business processes that facilitate improved decision making is the goal of all things data. Indeed, data is the lifeblood of improved decision making for businesses. High Job Placement and High Salaries There is currently a shortage of employees with technical management information systems skills in the workplace. Recent graduates have nearly a 100% placement rate 6 months after graduation, with a mean salary of $60,000. Career Prospects As technology spreads across every organizational sector, corporate jobs in this field are generated rapidly. Our 33-credit hour program is designed to enhance your undergraduate education by increasing your analytical proficiencies and business technology skills and strategically preparing you for management positions. Program Options This degree is available as a single degree (MMIS) or can be paired with a second master’s degree (MBA/MMIS or MHR/MMIS) by enrolling in one additional year. Curriculum The MMIS curriculum was developed with two strategic goals: Provide students with analytical-focused information systems knowledge and a complementary business acumen to enhance corporate leadership and problem solving. Support the... [-]

Graduate Diploma in Information Technology

EPITECH
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 France Paris

Epitech offers a 2-year Graduate-level curriculum in English, open to international students. The Epitech educational model is designed to help students learn how to apply their knowledge in practical situations instead of just learning theory. [+]

Graduate Diploma in Information Technology: The Innovation Track Please note that students need a Bachelor level to apply to the Graduate program. Epitech offers a 2-year Graduate-level curriculum in English, open to international students, called Innovation Track. The aim of the program is to help our students reach a new level of expertise and build their own unique profile by staying in an innovative mindset and turn them into innovative experts able to create the digital world of tomorrow. The program lasts 2 years. Each student's first year is organized according to their profile, around "compulsory Core courses" and "chosen electives". Students will acquire both technical and methodological knowledge. During their second year, students will either specialize or diversify their knowledge according to their professional project. Epitech Innovative Projects (EIP) come to an end and students are ready to enter the job market. This year is the end of a cycle and serves as a stepping stone for the student's early career. The cycle allows for a large choice of electives per semester. These help provide students with new technical abilities and let them become professionals in various areas of expertise. Each student's curriculum is different and custom-built to promote diversity and let students be specialists in their field. A 6-months long internship, in a company or an incubator, takes place at the end of the curriculum. It serves as a unique springboard for students' career and allows to put their knowledge to work in real-life situations. 1st Semester 2nd... [-]

Masters in Development Practice

Trinity College Dublin
Campus Part time 2 years September 2017 Ireland Dublin

The two-year Masters in Development Practice encompasses an integrated theoretical and practical approach with multidisciplinary training in four “pillars”- health, natural, social, and management sciences. Eighteen core academic modules (link) provide rigorous training across the core pillars, complemented by masters level training in research design, methodology, and methods including training in leading edge quantitative... [+]

Masters in Engineering & Technology. Masters in Development Practice Established in 2009 following recommendations from the International Commission on Education for Sustainable Development Practice, the Global Masters in Development Practice (MDP) is a world-leading and uniquely innovative interdisciplinary graduate degree programme that blends health, natural, social, and management sciences--combined with cross-sectoral field training and professional local and international work-based placements to better understand international development problems and best practices. The Dublin MDP is a member of this global network of Master’s in Development Practice, headquartered at Columbia University, New York, linking with over 30 universities and hundreds of partner organisations worldwide. The two-year Masters in Development Practice encompasses an integrated theoretical and practical approach with multidisciplinary training in four “pillars”- health, natural, social, and management sciences. Eighteen core academic modules (link) provide rigorous training across the core pillars, complemented by masters level training in research design, methodology, and methods including training in leading edge quantitative, qualitative, and digital tools and techniques. The programme includes four work-based placements (link) which provide hands-on practical experience for students, both in International Development NGOs and International Intergovernmental Organisations. This programme aims to create a new generation of development practitioners with the skills to implement and manage comprehensive approaches to sustainable and efficient development. The Dublin MDP is a joint degree led by the Trinity College Dublin (TCD) School of Natural Science and University College Dublin (UCD) School of Politics and International Relations, and delivered by staff from all faculties across the universities, in collaboration... [-]

Master in Cyber Security

Harbour.Space
Campus Full time September 2017 Spain Barcelona

Programme Description The MS program is designed for those who want to extend their technical and programming skills to handling enterprise security challenges. Our comprehensive courses will provide a solid foundation in key technology including computer and network security, cryptography, enterprise security architecture analysis, etc. The graduates will learn to stay current on rapidly changing technology, adapt and control to new threats and start a successful career in enterprise security. [+]

Programme Description This program is taught in ENGLISH. The MS program is designed for those who want to extend their technical and programming skills to handling enterprise security challenges. Our comprehensive courses will provide a solid foundation in key technology including computer and network security, cryptography, enterprise security architecture analysis, etc. The graduates will learn to stay current on rapidly changing technology, adapt and control to new threats and start a successful career in enterprise security. PROGRAMME STRUCTURE Year 1 During the first year students quickly recap basics of computer science and then focus on fundamentals of cyber security including computer architecture, operating systems security, secure programming, networks, and cryptography. Modules Computer Architecture Secure Programming Algorithms and Data Structures Practical Unix Windows Administration Operating Systems Computer Networking Human Aspects of Cyber security: Law, Ethics and Privacy Cryptography Software Engineering & Design Scripting Languages Java Programming Identity and Access Management Technical Writing and Presenting Introduction to Interaction Design Leadership and Group Dynamics Secure Data management Capstone Project Seminars & Workshops Year 2 The second year exposes students to different dimensions of cyber security field. Subjects range from Mobile and Cloud Security to Digital Forensics and Quantum Communication and Cryptography. Additionally students participate in communication and leadership modules preparing them for the career as a successful member of a professional team. At the end of the program, graduates will be ready to take on responsibilities to safeguard an organization’s information and technology assets. Modules Technical Project Management Application Security Mobile Security Network... [-]

Master of Science in Multimedia and Entertainment Technology (MScMET)

HK PolyU School of Design
Campus Full time 1 - 1 year September 2017 Hong Kong Kowloon

The Master of Science in Multimedia and Entertainment Technology (MScMET), offered by the School of Design (SD) of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) is a world-renowned multimedia programme that explores crossdisciplinary media applications and technologies. [+]

Masters in Engineering & Technology. The Master of Science in Multimedia and Entertainment Technology (MScMET), offered by the School of Design (SD) of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) is a world-renowned multimedia programme that explores crossdisciplinary media applications and technologies. Students learn about the multimedia industry, creative processes for developing innovative ideas, the application of emerging technology in media, and entrepreneurial skills to successfully see a project from conception to completion. The programme offers three constantly adapting streams: Game Development; Applied Design Psychology; and Social, Mobile and Internet. In Game Development, students learn the latest in game design techniques, whilst in Applied Design Psychology, students gain insight into creative thinking and designing content. In Social, Mobile and Internet, students learn about how cutting edge technologies impact digital entertainment. The Three Pillars The MScMET programme is comprised of three distinctive pillars. The first is the diverse faculty of world-class scholars and industry specialists who bring a wealth of local and international expertise. Students obtain first hand theoretical and applied knowledge across multiple industries. Through faculty connections, students gain opportunities for their studies and career development. The second pillar is the programme’s commitment to supporting students in becoming balanced, forward-thinking individuals. Through engaging teaching methods, each student is guided towards becoming a creative and critical thinker, in touch with their intuition and capable of pursuing their future with confidence. The third pillar is the fostering of an entrepreneurial mindset in students. Skills learnt throughout the programme can be applied to personal... [-]