Masters Programs in Automotive Engineering

Compare 38 Masters Programs in Automotive Engineering

Automotive Engineering

Are you interested in the mechanics of Engineering? Do you have a degree in science and are contemplating different opportunities in the field? Then a Master in Automotive Engineering is a possibility for you! This discipline can provide students with excellent career possibilities in the public and private sector.  

Automotive Engineering uses Mechanical, Electronic and Safety Engineering to design and run cars, buses, motorbikes, trucks and so on. As a student earning a Master in Automotive Engineering, you will gain the important knowledge and skills to build, test and repair vehicles. As part of a Master in Automotive Engineering program, students can specialize in areas such as aviation, energy and transport, green engineering, transportation design, and automotive systems.

This site provides you with access to several programs that will qualify you to get a Master in Automotive Engineering. So click on any of the links and continue your education with a Master in Automotive Engineering, today!

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Cycle Ingénieur Génie Civil

Université Internationale de Casablanca
Campus Full time 3 years August 2017 Morocco Casablanca

Le Cycle Ingénieur en Génie Civil se déroule en 6 semestres dont 1 en tronc commun et prépare l’étudiant au titre d’ingénieur capable de répondre aux besoins des secteurs des bâtiments, travaux publiques et infrastructures. La fonction des ingénieurs en Génie Civil se décline en plusieurs activités: la conception, la réalisation, l’exploitation, la gestion, l’entretien et la réparation d’ouvrages. [+]

Masters in Automotive Engineering. Le Cycle Ingénieur en Génie Civil se déroule en 6 semestres dont 1 en tronc commun et prépare l’étudiant au titre d’ingénieur capable de répondre aux besoins des secteurs des bâtiments, travaux publiques et infrastructures. La fonction des ingénieurs en Génie Civil se décline en plusieurs activités: la conception, la réalisation, l’exploitation, la gestion, l’entretien et la réparation d’ouvrages. ADMISSIONS L’accès en 2 ème année est ouvert, sur étude de dossier, aux : Titulaires d’un Master 1 en mécanique, Génie Mécanique, en sciences des matériaux ou d’un diplôme équivalent. SPÉCIALISATION ET PFE La dernière année d’études se compose de deux parties bien distinctes : Le semestre (S9) est consacré aux cours de spécialité. C’est également une ouverture à la recherche pour ceux parmi les étudiants qui souhaitent entamer des études doctorales. Actuellement les options proposées aux étudiants en génie civil sont : Option Travaux Publics (TP) : Cette spécialité permettra au futur ingénieur d’être un acteur central, en mesure d’opérer efficacement dans tous les domaines touchant à la conception, la réalisation ainsi qu’à l’exploitation et la maintenance des équipements tels que : les infrastructures : routes, voies ferrées, ponts et ouvrages d’art divers… les ouvrages hydrauliques les ouvrages géotechniques (tunnels, travaux souterrains divers…) Option Bâtiments (BAT) : Le contenu de cette spécialité permettra au futur ingénieur d’être un acteur fondamental pour toutes les problématiques liées aux domaines du bâtiment aussi bien résidentiel qu’industriel. Cela concerne les aspects de conception, de réalisation et d’entretien des ouvrages. L’aspect... [-]

Master of Automotive Systems

HAN University of Applied Sciences
Campus Full time Part time 18 months September 2017 Netherlands Arnhem + 1 more

Based entirely on current demands and requirements in the field, the curriculum directly reflects major trends in the vehicle development industry. It focuses on exciting new developments such as intelligent vehicle systems (vehicle dynamics and control, driver [+]

Focus on latest trends in the industry Based entirely on current demands and requirements in the field, the curriculum directly reflects major trends in the vehicle development industry. It focuses on exciting new developments such as intelligent vehicle systems (vehicle dynamics and control, driver assistance) and advanced propulsion design (driveline and powertrain). This Masters course will provide you with skills and knowledge relevant to the latest developments in the automotive industry. The course is internationally oriented and taught entirely in English. A career in the automotive industry If you have attained your Bachelors in Automotive Engineering, Mechanical Engineering or Electrical Engineering and wish to further your education and career prospects in the automotive field, this Masters course is for you! The course prepares you for specific development and design positions. Areas within the industry that you can move into as a Masters graduate include software and test engineering, development and design engineering, applied research, production management, sales engineering and customer service. Master of Engineering in Automotive Systems HAN University of Applied Sciences has an excellent international reputation with over 60 years' experience in teaching and research in automotive technology. On successful completion of the course, you will be awarded a Master of Science. Full-time or part-time course taught in English The Masters course in Automotive Systems is taught entirely in English. You can combine your work and studies by choosing the part-time option. If you opt for studying full-time in the Netherlands, we will help you to find a work... [-]

MBA&E: Business Administration and Engineering

HTW Berlin University Of Applied Sciences
Campus Full time 3 - 4 semesters October 2017 Germany Berlin

The weighting of the course content of the MBA&E establishes a dual focus on topics drawn equally from business administration and technological subjects. Graduates from this course are equipped not only with exceptional specialist skills, but develop an analytical mind-set applicable to a variety of industries and business functions. [+]

Masters in Automotive Engineering. New! Global Procurement specialisation starting in October 2016 In 2016, we will be offering for the first time the MBA&E specialisation "Global Procurement". This specialisation is based on our 2015 survey of major German industrial companies, which revealed a strong demand for internationally oriented procurement and supply chain specialists. Further information will be added onto the MBA&E website during spring 2016. Multifaceted and interdisciplinary The weighting of the course content of the MBA&E establishes a dual focus on topics drawn equally from business administration and technological subjects. Graduates from this course are equipped not only with exceptional specialist skills, but develop an analytical mind-set applicable to a variety of industries and business functions. We seek to train every MBA&E graduate to become a robust, interdisciplinary problem solver – professional, creative and collaborative. Close to business practice As a postgraduate programme of study, the course accepts applications from students with backgrounds in engineering, management, and more. As a young professional, you already possess the in-depth skills specific to your discipline. By taking the MBA&E, you will develop a holistic understanding of the wider business process. MBA&E graduates are "gap-bridgers" – specialists in their respective functions yet fully conversant with mainstream results-oriented management practices. Global companies need such "T-shaped people" - would you like to become one? Personal and international The MBA&E family of students and graduates is drawn from over 40 countries throughout the globe. Mechanical engineering, industrial management, intercultural communication, economics, material sciences, aeroplane design, nuclear... [-]

Advanced Master Air Navigation System Engineering and Operations (MS ANSEO)

ENAC
Campus Full time 2 semesters September 2017 France Toulouse

The MS ANSEO integrates the topics of the former masters by offering a systematic and global approach of the Air Navigation systems: on-ground (communication systems, navigation systems, surveillance systems, automated air traffic control systems), on-board (Satellite and avionics systems), and its operational methods (Air Traffic Management). [+]

As part of the policy on continuous improvement and adaptation of its master program to meet technological evolutions, air transport jobs, and to better answer to the needs of the global Air Navigation Industry, ENAC created a new Advanced Master Air Navigation System Engineering and Operations which replaces 3 former advanced masters: MS aviation and Air Traffic Management, MS Air Ground Collaborative System Engineering and MS Communication Navigation Surveillance. The MS ANSEO integrates the topics of the former masters by offering a systematic and global approach of the Air Navigation systems: on-ground (communication systems, navigation systems, surveillance systems, automated air traffic control systems), on-board (Satellite and avionics systems), and its operational methods (Air Traffic Management). Aims of the MS ANSEO: Commercial air transport Business should double before 20 years according to the most realistic forecasts. Therefore ICAO, States, Authorities of the Civil aviation should anticipate and prepare technically and operationally this growth by, establishing and implementing an effective global air navigation services system, absorbing the air traffic growth by a more integrated flight management into their different phases, reducing waiting times on the ground or during flight, and implementing new optimized operational concepts for eco-effective trajectories. Training program objectives The new advanced master “Air Navigation Systems Engineering and Operations ", MS ANSEO, is based on a systemic approach of Ai Navigation System, on an unique and integrated program with opened to three operational options: ATM, CNS/GNSS and Avionics. The MS ANSEO role is to educate a new generation of Air... [-]

Master In Automotive Production Engineering

Fraunhofer Academy
Campus Part time 5 semesters October 2017 Germany Munich Baden-Württemberg + 1 more

In the courses, great importance is placed on a continuous interaction between theoretical and scientific knowledge and practical application. [+]

Masters in Automotive Engineering. Study contents The course includes content from the three areas of expertise: A: manufacture and production technology Automotive B: Management and Leadership / Entrepreneurial activity C: Methodological and practical project skills An individual deepening of technical content is possible in elective modules. Study Organization eg preparatory courses, modules, elective and core courses etc. Admission Requirements - A first professionally qualifying degree (eg bachelor, diploma) in an engineering degree program (minimum 180 ECTS) - Applicants must also be at the time of study entry in ungekündigter and professionally relevant employment Content of the course In the courses, great importance is placed on a continuous interaction between theoretical and scientific knowledge and practical application. This orientation is supported by accompanying scientific and technological enterprise projects during the first 4 semesters. Through elective modules, students can expand their individual skills either strong in the engineering expertise in automotive production technology or set priorities in the field of leadership and management in the automotive industry. 1st semester: Materials Science automotive materials, lightweight construction concepts, Industrial Production 1, Logistics and Supply Chain Management 1, Entrepreneurial activity / International Management and more. 2nd semester: Industrial Production 2 (assembly technology, robotics and transport equipment), digital technology in production, instruments for quality management, strategic management, and more. 3rd semester: Quality assurance and non-destructive testing, Industrial Production 3 Logistics and Supply Chain Management 2, International Business Communication and more. 4th semester: Industrial production 4, vehicle and mobility concepts, marketing and sales, performing employees and more.... [-]

Master in Transportation and Car Design

Scuola Politecnica di Design SPD
Campus Full time 15 months October 2017 Italy Milan

The Master programme embraces the entire design development process by researching into new experiential concepts, redefining architectural solutions and moving forward with new criteria for comfort and efficiency. Today’s design paradigm must be brought into question in order to better interpret new aesthetic and social trends. The studio projects, organized in collaboration with major car companies... [+]

The Master programme embraces the entire design development process by researching into new experiential concepts, redefining architectural solutions and moving forward with new criteria for comfort and efficiency. Today’s design paradigm must be brought into question in order to better interpret new aesthetic and social trends. The studio projects, organized in collaboration with major car companies, represent a proving ground to test the students’ ideas. In particular SPD has signed a long term educational partnership with Volkswagen Group Design involving the participation of designers from the various brands – from Audi to Lamborghini – into the teaching activites. After the initial exploration, students move forward into design concepts and their refinement up to both physical and digital modelling. It’s a long process that demands a high level of personal committment and flexibility, organizational and time management skills as well as a strong attitude to teamwork. Projects are subject to group critiques and critiques with outsider reviewers. Transportation designers thus acquire a constant spur to innovation both in form language and function, allied with the understanding of engineering and production processes. ADMISSION Upon selection the Master admits graduates in Transportation or Car Design, Industrial Design, Vehicle Engineering or their equivalents, and candidates who have gained significant professional experience in the field. The program has a limited number of places available. Applicants will be admitted upon selection based on the student’s CV, portfolio and on an interview. DURATION The Master lasts 15 months (from October to December of the following year, with... [-]

Master in Interior Design for Luxury Rides (Yacht, private Jet and Helicopter)

Haute Future Fashion Academy
Campus Full time October 2017 Italy Milan

The Interior Designer is the creative mind who is responsible for designing the interior spaces of a myriad of different environments: prestigious boutiques, select clubs, exclusive resorts, private residences or luxury yachts. [+]

Masters in Automotive Engineering. Master in Interior Design for Luxury Rides (Yacht, private Jet and Helicopter) The Interior Designer is the creative mind who is responsible for designing the interior spaces of a myriad of different environments: prestigious boutiques, select clubs, exclusive resorts, private residences or luxury yachts. It is considered to all effects a designer of interiors and his expertise must necessarily embrace a broad range of areas such as Architecture, Design, Fashion and Art. It is a profession requiring design skills, aesthetic sense and ability to innovate, in order to propose excellent quality ideas that are able to attract and satisfy the most demanding elites. The most famous Interior Designers, as a matter of fact, are often likened to real artists and their names appear in magazines and daily newspapers throughout the world. They are much sought after personalities and deal with people who are very prominent and of high social standing on a daily basis. The aim of the Master course is to train professionals who are specialized in the Luxury sector, to develop their skills to design the interior space of the most luxurious elements “Yacht- Private jet- Helicopter”. They will be able to combine their own creative flair with the needs of different clients, paying particular attention to the aesthetical aspects, but also to the practical and functional ones, and at the same time respecting the highest standards. The course program is structured in such a way as to provide students both with practical skills,... [-]

MEng in Automotive Systems

Esslingen University of Applied Sciences
Campus Full time 3 semesters October 2017 Germany Esslingen

In recent years automotive systems have increased in number, scope and complexity. The automotive industry is faced with an enormous challenge due to the rise in competition and steadily increasing requirements regarding cost, active and passive safety and fuel economy. [+]

The Esslingen Graduate School

Internationality is a very important feature of the Esslingen University Graduate School.We have students from diverse cultural backgrounds studying, working and living together. This intercultural exchange and cooperation is a strong added value for our master’s students.

Esslingen University maintains regular contact with many prime international companies. This is important for the devopment, planning and teaching of our programs, and is of great benefit during the students' practical semester. The Esslingen University master courses are regularly accredited by renowned associations such as the FIBAA and ASIIN.

ESSLINGEN – AN IDEAL PLACE TO STUDY... [-]


Car Interior Design - 1st Level Master Degree

IED – Istituto Europeo di Design Torino
Campus Full time 12 months March 2018 Italy Turin

Designing interiors for the means of transport, in particular for cars, means dealing with the project of mobility starting from the user's perspective, both at the level of interaction of the man-machine system, and as experience of the phases of purchase and management of the vehicle. The Car Interior Designers specialize in the future and innovation of means of transport from the inside and builds future design scenarios by studying the user, its cultural needs, trends in society and use of the vehicle. The different subjects covered during the Master in Car Interior Design and User Experience allow future professionals to provide innovative solutions, related to the evolving needs of companies and buyers. [+]

Masters in Automotive Engineering. THIS PROGRAM IS TAUGHT IN ENGLISH Entry Requirements: The Master in Car Interior Design and User Experience welcomes IED graduates, or students from Art Academies or private schools and graduates in related areas such as Design, Architecture, Engineering and Media Design, professionals with at least two years of experience in this sector. Structure and Methodology: The Master's programme focuses on research and innovation in different sectors, with an emphasis on practical activities of design, to enable students to develop their creativity, refining tools and knowledge through a targeted and structured approach: the fundamentals of Interior design of cars, both technically and psychologically, emerging technologies, identifying layout and models of use of interior space, traditional materials and the latest generation, new trimmings, technologies and integrated platforms with a particular emphasis on interface design. From a cultural perspective, the Master in Car Interior Design and User Experience covers subjects such as the history and trends of Car Interior Design and the study of perception. Students improve their skills and techniques in the visualization and communication of ideas, forms and concepts. The laboratory of communication occurs with the practice in the advanced levels of 2D and 3D Photoshop and other industry-specific programs. The environment of the cockpit is examined in all its functionality. The user and his needs are always at the center of the project proposal. This means improving and facilitating the driving of the vehicle, the passenger compartment comfort in all aspects (functional, aesthetic, sound, touch) and... [-]

Master in Engineering

Across the Pond
Campus Full time 1 year August 2017 United Kingdom Aberdeen Belfast Brighton Canterbury Cardiff Chester Cirencester Colchester Edinburgh Epsom Exeter Falmouth Farnham Glasgow Guildford Huddersfield Leeds Leicester Lincoln Liverpool London Loughborough Manchester Newcastle Norwich Nottingham Oxford Reading Rochester Sheffield + 29 more

Across The Pond partners with some of the top UK universities for engineering, across a variety of disciplines. The UK has long been a major contributor to the innovation of engineering, and students who study in the UK benefit from intensive learning, opportunities to find placements at major engineering companies, and a concentration on both academic skill and employability. [+]

STUDY ENGINEERING IN THE UK Across The Pond partners with some of the top UK universities for engineering, across a variety of disciplines. The UK has long been a major contributor to the innovation of engineering, and students who study in the UK benefit from intensive learning, opportunities to find placements at major engineering companies, and a concentration on both academic skill and employability. BENEFITS OF STUDYING ENGINEERING IN THE UK Shorter courses: Most Master’s programs are only one year long. Students can obtain a degree in a shorter amount of time compared to studying in Latin America. Funding from Latin American countries for these subjects is also available. Focus: UK universities do not require general education courses; students will be focusing on engineering from Day 1! Employment opportunities: Many unis in the UK focus on having staff that are active in their fields, helping to provide an employability perspective and to generate learning opportunities outside of the classroom. Furthermore, many engineering courses offer the opportunity to take on a placement, whether as an additional year on their degree, or as a short-term opportunity during their degree. Either way, UK engineering students graduate with readiness to work. HOW CAN ACROSS THE POND HELP? We provide  free advice & guidance  to students wanting to pursue engineering in the UK. With our help you can: Find a leading programme  that meets both your academic needs and career goals Make the application process simple: your personal advisor will deal with the paperwork so... [-]

Master in Design and Development of Vehicle Dynamics

University of Pavia
Campus Full time 1 year October 2017 Italy Pavia Milan + 1 more

The Programme has the aim of training highly qualified professionals with a solid background in the design of vehicle dynamics and capable of operating in all the phases of design and development of the vehicle, from dynamic simulation to testing the prototype and the preproduction vehicle. [+]

Masters in Automotive Engineering. New Edition Academic Year 2017-2018 The Programme has the aim of training highly qualified professionals with a solid background in the design of vehicle dynamics and capable of operating in all the phases of design and development of the vehicle, from dynamic simulation to testing the prototype and the preproduction vehicle. The Course provides students with special and specific competence in vehicle testing techniques, both virtually, through CAE, and experimentally on the real vehicle (on track and road). See the promotional video of the Programme The training program, as an absolutely innovative element, includes, alongside frontal instruction, test sessions on the circuit of the Quattroruote Safe Driving Centre, during which the participants will be engaged at first hand in learning the techniques and methodologies used in testing, inspection, checks and fine tuning of the vehicle dynamic behavior. All the participants will take a specially designed course in Advanced Driving, oriented to the subsequent phase of testing and inspection on the circuit. The training program of the Course is completed, and this aspect also represents an innovation, by the use of a static simulator for developing vehicles in a virtual environment. The Programme is a full time, international, one-year course equivalent to 1,500 hours and to a total of 60 ECTS points, divided into frontal instruction at the University of Pavia, Palazzo Vistarino, practical exercises at the Quattroruote circuit (Vairano di Vidigulfo, Pavia), an internship period (equivalent to 24 ECTS points) at the main automotive companies, guided... [-]

Master's Degree In Nautical Engineering And Maritime Transport

Universidade da Coruña
Campus Full time 1 year September 2017 Spain A Coruña

The official title of Master in Nautical Engineering and Maritime Transport has the objective of completing the level of specialization of nautical professionals, as well as providing the degree of specific training that must have a graduate of the technological, legal or economic scope to develop professionally in the Scope of the maritime business. [+]

Introduction The official title of Master in Marine Engineering and Maritime Transport Has the objective of completing the level of specialization of nautical professionals, as well as providing the degree of specific training that must have a graduate of the technological, legal or economic field to develop professionally in the field of maritime business. Courses include advanced training in comprehensive safety management and protection techniques, maneuvering and navigation, maritime business management and inspections. The studies are framed in a profile of specialization in the field of technical activity that, in addition, will allow the student an orientation towards doctoral studies and research. The acquired academic training will allow to fulfill all the training requirements demanded in the "International Convention STCW78 / 95", for the professional exercise like Captain of Merchant Marine, whenever previously it had taken the Degree in Nautical Engineering. Why study the degree The curriculum is designed in accordance with the international regulations governing the training of professional seafarers and gives access to a labor market with high demand, with the possibility of practicing anywhere in the world and in very broad sectors of transport maritime. It allows access, together with the title of Degree in Nautical Engineering, to the profession of Captain of the Merchant Navy. It allows those who access from other levels of the technological field, specialized training of direct application in broad sectors of maritime business activity. It has highly qualified professors, with majority professional experience in the field of navigation, maritime transport and... [-]

Master in Transportation Design

IAAD Istituto D'Arte Applicata e Design
Campus Full time 10 months May 2018 Italy Turin

IAAD department of “Car Body Architecture” first in Italy opened in Turin in 1978. Since 2008 it is entitled in memory of Andrea Pininfarina. [+]

Masters in Automotive Engineering. IAAD department of “Car Body Architecture” first in Italy opened in Turin in 1978. Since 2008 it is entitled in memory of Andrea Pininfarina. The specialization in Transportation design deals with the study of the main means of transport with a focus on mobility systems and environmental sustainability. Turin is the undisputed world capital of automotive design and one of the centres of excellence in the international automotive industry: the great Italian production of Fiat, Lancia, Alfa Romeo and Ferrari, the design of Giugiaro and Pininfarina, Bertone, the automotive innovation of Centro Ricerche Fiat, the robotic technologies of DEA, Comau and Rambaudi, the innovation of Oxygen (electric alternative mobility), not to mention an enormous satellite activities that serves not only Fiat, but almost all of the major car manufacturers in Europe and the world. To confirm this today also Chinese design companies choose Turin as European seat. Thanks to this important supply chain, IAAD Transportation design department is flanked by a pool of important partner companies both public and private, which contribute to the activation of research projects, special lectures, workshops and seminars, company visits, educational activities and internships. MASTER OBJECTIVES IAAD have always had the goal of providing an innovative approach to training: the best way to become a professional in transportation is being apprenticed to learn from experts in the field. With this insight, IAAD is the first Italian university of higher education specializing in transportation design. The design work done in collaboration with... [-]

Master in Automotive Embedded Software

Politehnica University Timisoara
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Romania Timisoara

The Master in Automotive Embedded Software is a two year study programme taught in English which provides advanced knowledge in the field of automatic systems engineering applied to automotive embedded software. Graduates gain both a theoretical background in the field, and the methods of practical applications in order to offer complete solutions to practical problems in embedded systems. [+]

General information Requirements: Bachelor’s degree (or equivalent) Duration: 2 years (4 semesters) Teaching language: English Form of studies: Full time Automotive Embedded Software The Master in Automotive Embedded Software is a two year study programme taught in English which provides advanced knowledge in the field of automatic systems engineering applied to automotive embedded software. Graduates gain both a theoretical background in the field, and the methods of practical applications in order to offer complete solutions to practical problems in embedded systems. They know and understand a wide range of technical applications, and they master advanced skills and competences in the design and implementation of embedded applications dedicated to high complexity automotive systems. Main professional competences acquired by students: Problem definition, solution identification and project management of embedded systems; Application of testing and diagnosis models and of quality engineering principles to software applications implemented in embedded systems; Development of hardware and software applications for automotive systems using up-to-date informatics technology; Innovative solving of core problems in inter-disciplinary co-operation and team-working. Graduates enter highly paid and high satisfaction employment, their jobs involving the management of complex tasks in the field and inter-disciplinary cooperation. In addition, graduates acquire innovation and research skills, and can focus on research and development of new products. Courses First semester: Embedded Systems I Software Project Management Software Engineering I Networks for embedded systems Second semester: Embedded Systems II Communications Skills Embedded systems testing Dynamic Systems and Stability in Automotive Control Third semester: Elective 1-2 (choose 2 courses out... [-]

Master of Engineering in Additive Manufacturing

University of Maryland, A. James Clark School of Engineering
Campus Full time September 2017 USA College Park

The 30-credit curriculum includes 10 three-credit courses. No research or thesis is required for the degree. Six core courses and four elective courses. [+]

Masters in Automotive Engineering. Additive Manufacturing is a new class of manufacturing processes with associated design principles that are being used extensively by engineers for prototyping concepts and to realize new products. It is the official industry standard term (ASTM F2792) for all applications of the technology. It is defined as the process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing methodologies. The curriculum has more manufacturing, materials, and design content than a standard degree in Mechanical Engineering, which is the most closely related degree program. A number of new specialized courses are being developed to support the degree. Examples of topics covered include: * Fundamentals of Additive Manufacturing Processes * Product Realization using Additive Manufacturing * Design and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing * Polymer processing for Additive Manufacturing Learning outcomes include: * understanding of material properties that govern use in AM processes * understanding of manufacturing principles for AM * understanding of design principles for AM * ability to employ AM for prototyping and product realization * ability to model AM processes * ability to perform statistical analysis of AM processes Office of Advanced Engineering Education 2105 J.M. Patterson Building University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 [-]