Master of Science Programs in Sport

Compare 51 Master of Science Programs in Sport

Sport

A Master in Science is a great advanced degree to obtain if you want to further your education and have better opportunities for future careers. Most of the degree programs have a strong science and medicine background. An MSc in Sport is a specialized program for students that are passionate about athletics, the body, and exercise.

If you are wondering, “What is an MSc in Sport?” you can learn more by researching program options online. This master program is available to students who have completed the appropriate undergraduate coursework. The curriculum is based on exercise and sport psychology. Students typically have the option to study as researchers or practitioners. There are multiple programs throughout the world, with some available online. This helps meet the needs of scheduling.

After you learn about an MSc in Sport, it is important to recognize the benefits that come with the program. Once you obtain a Master in Sport, you will be qualified to work in the healthcare and sports industries. Since there are multiple programs, you can choose the option that best suits your needs. You can also select an option that will help you meet your career goals. This flexibility allows students to receive fulfillment during school and in their future jobs.

The cost of each program varies depending on where you go to school. There are programs across the globe that you can apply to.

If you graduate with an MSc in Sport, you will be qualified to work in a variety of positions. Most people become trainers for athletic teams or individual athletes. However, you can also perform research or work in other related fields.

 

If you are interested in advancing your education and pursuing a Master in Science, it important to research the various program options. Once you find one that suits you, then you can apply. Search for your program below and contact directly the admission office of the school of your choice by filling in the lead form.

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MSc in Exercise Science and Physical Education

University of Nicosia
Campus Full time Part time 3 semesters September 2017 Greece Athens Cyprus Nicosia + 3 more

Provide the student with an advanced working knowledge in the physical education, and exercise science. [+]

MSc Degrees in Sport. Duration (years): 1.5 έτη Qualification Awarded: Science and Physical Education (MSc) Level of Qualification: 2nd Cycle ( Master Degree) Language of Instruction: Greek / English Mode of Study: Full time / Part time Minimum Credits: 27 Minimum ECTS Credits: 90 Profile of the Programme: 1. Provide the student with an advanced working knowledge in the physical education, and exercise science; 2. Help all students acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and appreciations in organizing and scheduling physical activity for lifespan; 3. Create an academic environment conducive to learning new methodologies, techniques and concepts; 4. Cultivate analytical skills and critical thinking; 5. Promote ethical conduct of practice and research; 6. Provide specialized knowledge and extensive expertise in the areas of study. The specific objectives of this program are to prepare the graduates in order to be able to: 1. Become physical education teachers and physical education specialists; 2. Conduct and disseminate educational research; 3. Provide leadership in sport pedagogy; 4. Understand health and wellness programming based upon the ability to assess need, and to design, implement, and evaluate a program; 5. Assess health status, conduct fitness testing, and prescribe and administer exercise programs for individual and group programs across the lifespan; 6. Develop programs that are goal-oriented and meet the needs of broad populations; 7. Succeed in an ever growing, demanding and highly competitive professional world in sports, physical activity, and health promotion; 8. Develop critical thinking skills that will enable success in graduate school and beyond; 9.... [-]

MSc Sports Therapy

Leeds Beckett University
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 2 years September 2017 United Kingdom Leeds + 1 more

You will study the theories which underpin the practical application of sports therapy. You will have access to the University's specialist resources and be able to draw on the considerable expertise of our sport and health academics to further hone your expertise. [+]

Practising in the dynamic field of specialist sports care, you could find yourself working with elite athletes or have the opportunity to start your own sports therapy business. You will study the theories which underpin the practical application of sports therapy. You will have access to the University's specialist resources and be able to draw on the considerable expertise of our sport and health academics to further hone your expertise. You will have the opportunity to apply your knowledge and sharpen your practical skills on several placements. You could refine your expertise in the assessment, treatment and management of injuries working in a private practice, with the University?s sports teams or with elite-level athletes and professional sports clubs. Accredited by The Society of Sports Therapists, upon completion of this course you will be able to apply for membership (insured) status of the society. University Sport At our University we're passionate about sport. There's a huge range of sports and activities for you to get involved in, including more than 40 sports clubs. If you'd like to find out more about what we have to offer - including our Carnegie Sports Scholarship Scheme - take a look at our University Sport website. ENTRY REQUIREMENTS Applicants should either have at least a second class honours degree in the cognate subjects of Physiotherapy, Sports Science, Sport and Exercise Science or Sports Therapy, at least a second class honours degree in a non-cognate subject supported by evidence of an aptitude for the subject applied... [-]

Master in Sport Business Management

Wittenborg University of Applied Sciences
Campus Full time 1 year Open Enrollment Netherlands Apeldoorn

This exciting course analyses and evaluates the commercial and management forces that have contributed to the success of sport business. It offers flexibility with an innovative combination of block and online delivery, making it suitable for those working in the sports sector and recent graduates who are looking to develop their knowledge and understanding of this fast growing and important industry. [+]

MSc Degrees in Sport. This exciting course analyses and evaluates the commercial and management forces that have contributed to the success of sport business. It offers flexibility with an innovative combination of block and online delivery, making it suitable for those working in the sports sector and recent graduates who are looking to develop their knowledge and understanding of this fast growing and important industry. Spectator and participatory sport is a global phenomenon and has recently become one of the fastest growing economic sectors for both developed and developing countries. Through engaging with and analysing the commercial, media and political drivers of change, you are able to identify the factors that have created such growth and critically discuss the implications for business, society, nation branding and identity. Sport is a sophisticated and complex international business with billions of consumers watching and engaging with sporting events on a weekly or even daily basis. This course aims to develop professionals in the provision, promotion and marketing of sport who are able to fully capitalise on the opportunities that the sector presents. Through studying marketing, sponsorship, media and law – and after spending time in a sports organisation on a professional work placement – you gain academic understanding and practical knowledge of the issues involved in successful sport business management. This will help you to engage, manage and shape the sport businesses of the future. Course structure You will experience a dynamic blend of academic study, research and – through the placement module... [-]

MSc in Sports Industry Management

emlyon business school
Campus Full time 16 months September 2017 Germany Munich France Lyon China Shanghai Paris United Kingdom Lancaster + 7 more

In a 16-month period you will study management as it relates specifically to the sports and outdoor business in Paris, The French Alps and Shanghai, and share the classroom with students from all over the world. [+]

MSc in Sports Industry Management

The MSc in Sports Industry Management programme will help you:

    develop a broad general view of the dynamics in the international sports market and,     acquire the specialist management skills and techniques that are necessary for success in this highly coveted and competitive industry.

In a 16-month period you will study management as it relates specifically to the sports and outdoor business, and share the classroom with students from all over the world. Starting your studies in Paris, you will first acquire the fundamentals of management as they apply to the sports industry in a global environment. Consecutively, specialist courses will help you manage the specifics of the sports industry. After your time in the Alps, you will move on to emlyon business school’s Asian Campus in Shanghai, for the “Asian Business Environment” module. Throughout the programme you will have the opportunity to visit companies and meet and hear from industry experts. If you want to develop all it takes to start a successful career in the international sports industry, then this is the right programme for you!... [-]


MS in Athletic Training

Chapman University
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 USA Orange

The master of science in athletic training prepares students for a career as a certified athletic trainer. Athletic trainers (ATs) are health care professionals who collaborate with physicians to optimize activity and participation of patients and clients. [+]

MSc Degrees in Sport. The master of science in athletic training prepares students for a career as a certified athletic trainer. Athletic trainers (ATs) are health care professionals who collaborate with physicians to optimize activity and participation of patients and clients. The services provided by ATs comprise prevention, diagnosis and intervention of emergency, acute and chronic medical conditions involving impairment, functional limitations and disabilities. Athletic training is recognized by the American Medical Association as a healthcare profession. The master of science in athletic training (MS.AT) will begin in summer 2015 and will be a full-time, cohort-model program. As a cohort-model program, admission into the MS.AT program is highly competitive and limited. This full-time, intensive program is a rich combination of didactic, hands-on clinical laboratories, and clinical fieldwork providing carefully guided clinical experiences every semester. Clinical fieldwork placements include a variety of colleges, universities, high schools and physician offices. Program at a Glance - 15 - to 20-student cohort model with entry each summer (starting 2015) - A 60-unit program designed to be completed in two years (including summer terms) with up to 14 units of coursework per semester - Classes offered on Mondays and Tuesdays only, with authentic clinical fieldwork placements during the rest of the week - Required 1200 hours of supervised clinical fieldwork placements - Program focus on Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), advanced clinical skills, and healthcare informatics and technology Admissions The MS.AT program has two routes for admission, with each route requiring the prospective student to complete the... [-]

Master of Science in Sports and Event Management

University of Southern Denmark
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Denmark Esbjerg

The MSc in Economics and Business Administration profile in Sports and Event Management gives you competences on a high academic level within... [+]

Master in Economics and Business Administration - Sports and Event Management (MSc) Do you want to manage companies in the sports and event sector? This programme gives you competences that enable you to become such a manager.The MSc in Economics and Business Administration profile in Sports and Event Management gives you competences on a high academic level within organization and marketing. The focus lies on issues that are especially relevant for companies in the sports and event sector. The profile is offered at Campus Esbjerg.The profile concerns itself with the entertainment markets, and how they interact with the sports and event sector. Other marketing issues are strategy and competition. The organizational subjects are governance in sports companies, project management and innovation management. In addition, you get methodological skills in qualitative as well as in qualitative research. Further, you can choose between electives offered especially for this programme as well as electives from other master studies offered at Campus Esbjerg.The profile runs in eight quarters. In the courses, you will work with projects, in groups and have lectures. The group of students in the courses is normally a size allowing interaction with the professor lecturing as well as discussions among the students. This enlarges the size of the active vocabulary which you can later use in discussing issues related to these fields as a part of your job.The courses on the profile are taught in English. You can, however, do exams including your master thesis in Danish provided the teacher is... [-]

Master of Science in Sport Management

Cardinal Stritch University
Campus Part time 2 years September 2017 USA Milwaukee

This program is designed to prepare the student for careers in professional, collegiate, and not‐for‐profit athletics as well as wholesale/retail sporting goods, facility and event management, and health and fitness club management. [+]

MSc Degrees in Sport. This program is designed to prepare the student for careers in professional, collegiate, and not‐for‐profit athletics as well as wholesale/retail sporting goods, facility and event management, and health and fitness club management. The program can be completed in less than two years. The program offers a wide variety of courses that focus on all aspects of management in the sport industry. PROGRAM FORMAT The delivery mode for this 30 credit M.S. in Sport Management program is a face‐to‐face classroom setting in an accelerated cohort format. Each class is a three credit offering lasting eight weeks. All classes meet one night per week from 6‐10 p.m. Classes meet continuously during a 12 month period. Students are eligible to start one of these tracks at the start of the fifth course and after attending orientation. Degree Requirements Program Credits: 30 Required Courses SSM 502 Social and Historical Aspects of Sport (3 cr.) SSM 520 Sport Ethics and Leadership (3 cr.) SSM 510 Sport Organization and Management (3 cr.) SSM 512 Financial Aspects of Sport (3 cr.) SSM 536 Sport Law (3 cr.) SSM 542 Sport Facilities Management and Design (3 cr.) SSM 544 Sport Marketing (3 cr.) SSM 545 Public Relations in Sport (3 cr.) SSM 506 Contemporary Issues in Sport (3 cr.) SSM 549: Capstone: Strategic and Tactical Approaches to Sport Management (3 cr.) Required Auxiliary Courses: none Additional Information ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS To qualify for admission to this program, students must have: A bachelor's degree from a... [-]

MS in Recreation Management and Therapeutic Recreation

University of Wisconsin La Crosse
Campus Full time 1 - 2 years September 2017 USA La Crosse

The Master of Science in Recreation Management is a multidisciplinary program of advanced study designed to prepare graduates for careers in the public, private non-profit, and the commercial sectors of the recreation profession. The Master of Science in Therapeutic Recreation is a comprehensive program of study designed to prepare graduates for careers in the multifaceted field of therapeutic recreation... [+]

Recreation Management The Master of Science in Recreation Management is a multidisciplinary program of advanced study designed to prepare graduates for careers in the public, private non-profit, and the commercial sectors of the recreation profession. With three curricular options (thesis, graduate project, or internship), the program serves both students with extensive recreation backgrounds and students who are looking to a masters program as their gateway into the recreation field. Curriculum Recreation Management at UWL offers a 30-credit program leading to a Masters of Science degree. Admission Requirements The program welcomes students without an undergraduate degree in Recreation, but some prerequisite courses may be required. Students may take deficiency courses prior to beginning the graduate program or they may begin the program and take the courses within the first two semesters of their graduate program. Therapeutic Recreation The Master of Science in Therapeutic Recreation is a comprehensive program of study designed to prepare graduates for careers in the multifaceted field of therapeutic recreation. Our dual track curriculum serves two kinds of the students, the certified therapeutic recreation specialist (CTRS) seeking advanced training in therapeutic recreation as well as the student who wants to enter the therapeutic recreation profession by completing his or her masters degree. All students completing a masters at UWL meet all criteria for sitting for the national therapeutic recreation examination. Curriculum Therapeutic Recreation at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse offers two distinct graduate programs. One is designed for students with a bachelor’s degree in therapeutic recreation and already... [-]

Master of Science Atheltic Training

Eastern Kentucky University
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 USA Richmond

This program is for people who are interested in a career in sports medicine and allied health care, like working with both acute care and rehabilitation. Applications are only reviewed for Summer admission. [+]

MSc Degrees in Sport. Who would be interested in this program? People who are interested in a career in sports medicine and allied health care, like working with both acute care and rehabilitation. Athletic Trainers work in a wide variety of settings from Professional Sports, Colleges, High Schools, clinics, to industrial and corporate setting, to performing arts, law enforcement, US Military, NASCAR and Indy Care Settings. Program Admission Requirements All applicants for the program need to apply using ATCAS the Centralized Application Service for Athletic Training. Program Pre-Requisites Courses Basic Anatomy (3) and Human Physiology (3) or A & P I (3hrs) and A & P II (3hrs) Exercise Physiology (3hrs) Biomechanics or Kinesiology (3hrs) Statistics (3hrs) Strength & Conditioning (3hrs) Medical Terminology (3hrs) Intro to Psychology (3hrs) Intro to Athletic Training or Care & Prevention of Athletic Injuries (2-3hrs) First Aid Certification or Equivalent (i.e EMT-B licensed in KY) American Heart Association Health Care Provider CPR (AHA preferred) Undergraduate Cum GPA 2.75 and a 3.0 GPA in Pre-Requisite Courses 50 Hours of documented clinical observation/experience under an ATC obtained within 2 years prior to program application. Hours must have been obtained under an AT, hours under the supervision of a physical therapist DO NOT count unless the individual is dual credentialed as an AT and the hours were obtained in a traditional athletic training facility or field setting not in an outpatient physical therapy clinic. -GRE Recommended scores of 144 on verbal and quantitative sections. **Applicants with cumulative undergraduate... [-]

MSc Sport Management

Birkbeck, University of London
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 2 years October 2017 United Kingdom London + 1 more

This programme is designed to give you the skills and expertise you need to compete in the sport industry and related businesses and organisations, by combining specialist teaching about the principles and practice of sport management and economics with general training in management, business organisation, strategy and research methods. [+]

This programme is designed to give you the skills and expertise you need to compete in the sport industry and related businesses and organisations, by combining specialist teaching about the principles and practice of sport management and economics with general training in management, business organisation, strategy and research methods. It covers several key areas, such as governance and regulatory issues, with emphasis on the wider sport sector. It will help you to develop a deeper understanding of management, governance and regulatory issues within the business of sport. It is ideally suited to the needs of executives within a variety of sport organisations, such as professional sport clubs, governing bodies, media organisations, members of supporters’ organisations, and local government officials with responsibilities in the leisure field, as well as people with a general interest in the sport and media industries. Based in the School of Business, Economics and Informatics, the Department of Management is an internationally recognised centre of excellence in teaching, research and consultancy in the broad field of management. Our academic staff are active researchers as well as enthusiastic teachers, and regularly publish cutting-edge articles in the world's leading journals. We have particular research strengths in international business and strategy, the management of innovation and entrepreneurship, human resource management, corporate governance, sport management and marketing, as well as financial management and accounting. We offer students of all ages and backgrounds a chance to study either part-time or full-time in our department and to gain an internationally recognised University of... [-]

MSc/MBA in Sports, Marketing & Management M2 April & October

INSEEC Chambéry campus
Campus Full time 2 semesters October 2017 France Chambéry Switzerland Geneva + 2 more

The MSc/MBA Sports, Marketing & Management is a three period course with 333 hours of face-to-face training which is worth 60 ECTS or 26 US credits. All classes are taught in English [+]

MSc Degrees in Sport. The MSc/MBA Sports, Marketing & Management is a three period course with 333 hours of face-to face training which is worth 60 ECTS or 26 US credits. All classes are taught in English. This course aims to provide international students with the knowledge and skills required to work efficiently in a global environment focusing on: International Trade, Strategic Management and Logistics as well as in-depth knowledge of Accounting and Marketing Human Resources Skills to develop personal and practical skills needed for operating in a professional working environment: managing multicultural teams on different sites using effective decision-making abilities. CAREER OPPORTUNITIES This course can be directly applied to work in Import Export, International Sales, Marketing, Purchasing, Supply Chain Management and Human Resources Management. Admission Requirements MSc: Interested candidate with BSc. Hns. Degree (4 years of University studies duly completed or 5 years for Chinese students) with the level of English language competence needed to study in English. MBA: interested candidate with BSc. Degree (3 years of University studies duly completed or 4 years for Chinese students) and at least 2 years of work experience in a middle management position with the level of English language competence needed to study in English. IELTS: 6.5 -7.0 (With band score no less than 6.0) TOEIC: 750 - TOEFL: 550 - TOEFL IBT: 80 French Proficiency: no pre-requisite. French-as-a-Foreign-Language Instruction included in the program. Submit the application and required documents by email:akpallattu@inseec.com. Shortlist candidates will be contacted 1 week after sending applications.... [-]

MSc in Strength & Conditioning (part-time)

University of Bolton
Campus Part time 3 years August 2017 United Kingdom Bolton

The MSc Strength and Conditioning is designed for individuals working in the strength and conditioning industry who wish to continue their professional development, or those wishing to increase their knowledge in preparation for a career in the field. The degree offers you a coherent balance between academic knowledge (for evidence-based practice) and professional vocational skills. The modules emphasise both the theoretical knowledge underpinning... [+]

Strength & Conditioning - MSc part-time The MSc Strength and Conditioning is designed for individuals working in the strength and conditioning industry who wish to continue their professional development, or those wishing to increase their knowledge in preparation for a career in the field. The degree offers you a coherent balance between academic knowledge (for evidence-based practice) and professional vocational skills. The modules emphasise both the theoretical knowledge underpinning strength and conditioning and the professional skills you'll need for a successful career in this exciting industry. You will study the science and coaching of strength and conditioning by undertaking eight taught modules and a masters project. Each module builds on your undergraduate-level knowledge and makes strong links between theory and practice in areas such as biomechanics, physiology, nutrition and coaching, among others. About the course The Sport and Exercise Science group within the School of Health and Social Sciences is committed to developing the scientist practitioner and the strength and conditioning professional is a prime example of this. The course is aimed at preparing strength and conditioning coaches for a professional career in the field, underpinned with original and innovative thinking abilities and covering the competency base for the UKSCA examinations. At the moment there are no formal qualifications in strength and conditioning in the UK, although the launch of the UK Strength and Conditioning Body in May 2004 might well address this issue. Many people have taken the USA CSCS exam (www.nsca-lift.org). This course will be aimed at not... [-]

MSc in Psychology of Sport (Accredited)

University of Stirling
Campus Full time Part time 9 - 24 months September 2017 United Kingdom Stirling + 1 more

Taught by staff with consultancy and research experience, this MSc reflects the current industry trends and employer needs. The course has a broad focus and develops a critical understanding of contemporary theory, research and practice in sport psychology, with a focus on developing graduates who are able to integrate and translate theory and research into practice. [+]

MSc Degrees in Sport. Taught by staff with consultancy and research experience, this MSc reflects the current industry trends and employer needs. The course has a broad focus and develops a critical understanding of contemporary theory, research and practice in sport psychology, with a focus on developing graduates who are able to integrate and translate theory and research into practice. Your studies will include: theory and application of psychological skills, exploration of social processes, understanding of individual differences, learning applied research methods and developing knowledge of career transition management. In addition to these core skills, the course places a great emphasis on professional practice and development through a work-based learning experience, alongside developing your own specific interests through a research dissertation. What makes us different? Entry requirements Academic requirements A minimum of a second class Honours degree (2.1 preferred) or equivalent. Applicants without these formal qualifications but with significant appropriate/relevant work/life experience are encouraged to apply. INTO University of Stirling offers a Graduate Diploma for those students who do not meet the required criteria for this course. If you successfully complete the Graduate Diploma in Business, Finance and Sport and meet the required progression grades, you will be guaranteed entry onto this Master's degree. English language requirements If English is not your first language you must have one of the following qualifications as evidence of your English language skills: IELTS: 6.5 with 5.5 minimum in each skill Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE): Grade C Cambridge Certificate of Advanced... [-]

Master in Sport and Exercise Science (MSc)

Middlesex University London
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 2 years October 2017 United Kingdom London UK Online + 2 more

From elite performance to the thriving personal fitness market and community-based sport activity, sport is an ever-expanding multi-billion dollar global industry. Our degree primes the very best graduates with the skills to help sports people improve efficiency of performance and reduce risk of injury. In the wake of London 2012, careers in sport and recreation are on the rise. Gain an advantage by training at one of the leading sport and exercise science universities in the UK. [+]

Why study MSc Sport and Exercise Science at Middlesex? Sport science provides scientific intervention to enhance training and performance, while exercise science has a central role in physical activity programmes aimed at improving general health. Our innovative, engaging and broad-ranging course will help you to strengthen the practical skills required to work with both elite athletes and the general population. Furthermore, it will improve your knowledge and understanding of the theoretical principles underlying the practical application. Allowing you the chance to study biomechanics, physiology and psychology, the real strength of this course is that it keeps your options open. Our highly experienced experts will develop your skills in critical analysis, evaluation, research and writing. Our facilities are based in Saracen Rugby's nearby Allianz Park stadium. We boast world-class performance laboratories, rehabilitation units and testing facilities. We also have associations, either through partnerships or through our alumni, with Tottenham Hotspur, Lee Valley, the England Rugby Football Union and the English Institute of Sport, allowing you to train alongside the best and build invaluable industry contacts. Course highlights: - Based in London, we are surrounded by the greatest density of top sports clubs and organisations in the UK. - We believe that our graduates should be high achievers both practically and academically. As a result, we actively encourage students to publish their dissertation through peer-reviewed journals and conferences. - We promote collaboration across the various sports MScs and students from different courses can work together on dissertations, projects and research. - Our... [-]

MSc in Exercise Science

Northeastern Illinois University
Campus Part time 2 years September 2017 USA Chicago Grayslake + 1 more

The mission of the M.S. in Exercise Science program is to provide optimal education in the sciences of Human Performance and Preventive Health through currency and excellence in teaching, research, and service. The M.S. in Exercise Science is a viable option for professionals who are currently active in the health, wellness, and fitness-related professions who wish to become more effective in their career by gaining greater scientific insight into current health, fitness, and performance-related issues on concern to their students, athletes, patients, and clients. [+]

MSc Degrees in Sport. The mission of the M.S. in Exercise Science program is to provide optimal education in the sciences of Human Performance and Preventive Health through currency and excellence in teaching, research, and service. The M.S. in Exercise Science is a viable option for professionals who are currently active in the health, wellness, and fitness-related professions who wish to become more effective in their career by gaining greater scientific insight into current health, fitness, and performance-related issues on concern to their students, athletes, patients, and clients. With our night-time only classes (7:05pm to 9:45 p.m.) the M.S. in Exercise Science is a viable option for professionals who are currently active in the health, wellness, and fitness-related professions and who wish to gaining greater scientific insight into current health, fitness, and performance-related issues of concern to their students, athletes, patients, or clients. Professionals such as those in physical education, health education, and science education in the public schools; physical therapy, health and fitness club professionals, professional and school sports coaching, community health & wellness, personal training, nutrition, dietetics, gerontology, athletic training, or nursing. Program Benefits In the graduate program, students learn to understand the integrative nature of the various exercise, sport, and nutritional sciences and applies them to the clinical applications of exercise, coaching, and dietary behaviors. In the introductory courses, students learn the nature and practice of scientific inquiry and analysis in order to develop the ability to critically analyze and apply the current literature in the exercise... [-]