Masters Programs in Environmental Economics

Compare 10 Masters Programs in Environmental Economics

Environmental Economics

As a subfield of economics, environmental economics is concerned with issues regarding environment. As a postgraduate professional degree program, MSc in Environmental Economics programs are designed to expose students to effective making of policy solutions to the contemporary problems in the environment as well as the causes of the problems. The course is meant to explore the various economic analyses regarding environmental economics.

In modern economic situations, the issue of environmental economics plays a big role. This has seen the introduction of MSc in Environmental Economics. The course is intended to offer research skills and techniques in providing reliable solutions to the prevailing situations. The course prepares young professionals and leaders in the multidisciplinary aspect of the industry. The course shapes up the career lines of most students looking for skills and knowledge in the world of environmental economics. MSc in Environmental Economics is a program designed to provide quality understanding of resource and environmental economics with practical tools in analyzing the situation. The skills gained by graduates are marketable and applicable worldwide across institutions and industries.

Read More

M.S. in Environmental Management

University of San Francisco - College of Arts & Sciences
Campus 2 years August 2017 USA San Francisco

The Master of Science in Environmental Management is designed for graduate students and working professionals who seek or hold careers in the environmental field. [+]

Master in Environmental Management The Master of Science in Environmental Management is designed for graduate students and working professionals who seek or hold careers in the environmental field. The goal of this science-based, management program is to enhance and broaden the skills and knowledge necessary to meet the demands and changes of the environmental marketplace - in industry, government and public agencies, nonprofit and non-governmental organizations and the consulting sector.The University of San Francisco founded its Master of Science in Environmental Management program nearly 35 years ago. Since then, over 700 graduates have received quality education and training as environmental managers from the program and have established a wide variety of environmental careers at organizations in the United States and throughout the world. The program is offered at USF's main campus in San Francisco.... [-]


Master of Environmental Policy

Duke Kunshan University
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 China Kunshan

Duke Kunshan University’s international Master of Environmental Policy (iMEP) program combines a world-class faculty, cutting-edge research center, innovative curriculum and unparalleled career opportunities. You will leave the program with an advanced degree from world-renowned Duke University, and the knowledge and experience you need to devise evidence-based policy solutions to the most urgent environmental problems of our time. [+]

Duke Kunshan University’s international Master of Environmental Policy (iMEP) program combines a world-class faculty, cutting-edge research center, innovative curriculum and unparalleled career opportunities. You will leave the program with an advanced degree from world-renowned Duke University, and the knowledge and experience you need to devise evidence-based policy solutions to the most urgent environmental problems of our time. Course Structure The four-semester, 16-course iMEP program is designed to capture the skills necessary for a new generation of environmental leaders. It is the first in the world to draw together the important core requirements in environmental management and public policy. These include economics, political science, sociology, history, law, statistics and environmental science. Year 1 Environmental Economics Statistics and Program Evaluation for Environmental Policy Environmental Policy Analysis 1 Elective Environmental Science Environmental Economics Policy Practicum Environmental Policy Process 1 Elective Year 2 Master's Project Capstone* 3 Electives Master's Project Capstone* Environmental Law, Governance and Regulation 2 Electives *Under faculty supervision, small groups of students will work with clients to develop solutions to real-world environmental policy challenges. International Opportunities Building on the strong relationship between the iMEP program and Duke University, iMEP students will have the opportunity to spend a semester at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, USA, where they will interact with the broader Duke faculty, gain additional English-language experience, and build networks with US-based contacts. At the same time, the program will bring students pursuing a master’s degree from the Nicholas and Sanford schools to Duke Kunshan, further increasing diversity and networking opportunities in the iMEP program. Internships with a range of international organizations, NGOs, and corporations round out the opportunities available to iMEP students. Become a Global Environmental Policy Leader Students of the iMEP program emerge with the skills they need to forge evidence-based environmental policy solutions in the public and private sectors. Sample positions that graduates are well placed to secure include: Project Manager, Environment Ministry Policy Analyst, Environmental NGO Supply Chain Specialist, Multinational Company Carbon Market Analyst, Consulting Firm Solar Power Market Analyst, Financial Firm Individualized Career Services The career services office on the Duke Kunshan campus will help with career counseling and networking, coordinate internship placement and provide workshops and training sessions on resume preparation, oral presentation and professional development. In addition, high-profile environmental conferences at Duke Kunshan will bring leading government officials and international environmental stakeholders to campus throughout the year, while an annual China environmental policy fair will specifically target employers looking for iMEP interns and graduates and bring them to campus. [-]

Master 2 in Environmental and Natural Resources Economics (ERNA)

Toulouse School Of Economics TSE
Campus Full time September 2017 France Toulouse

The Master 2 in Environmental and Natural Resources Economics (ERNA) is providing with the analytical skills to assess, analyse and recommend economic policies and strategies to tackle environmental issues and manage natural resources. [+]

Masters in Environmental Economics. Aims and Scope Environmental issues such as pollution, climate change and the conservation of biodiversity are currently in the headlines of economic debate. Governments design public policies such as taxes or emission trading schemes to mitigate the negative impacts of air or water pollution. Firms launch green business strategies such as investments in cleaner technologies, product labelling or socially responsible investments to improve their competiveness. The Master 2 in Environmental and Natural Resources Economics (ERNA) is providing with the analytical skills to assess, analyse and recommend economic policies and strategies to tackle environmental issues and manage natural resources. Students will target jobs in natural resources management and sustainable development (large businesses, public institutions and local communities) or within international institutions or will pursue an academic career. This programme is mainly led by researchers, experts in environmental and natural resource economics within TSE. Admission Admission is based on academic excellence criteria. An undergraduate degree of at least 4 years of college or a Master’s degree is required, within a recognized curriculum considered as consistent with the program and approved by the TSE selection committee. Some brushing-up in Economics or Maths might be advisable in some cases. Working knowledge of English is obviously required. Application deadlines: Applications are considered from November to end-February for international students and in April/May for French University graduates. Fees 5500 euros + 256 euros : Master registration fees + 215 euros: Social Security Scholarships: Some Master scholarships will be awarded to Master students according to academic and individual criteria [-]

Master's Programme in Economics

Umeå University, Umeå School of Business and Economics
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Sweden Umeå

Umeå University, Umeå School of Business and Economics Master´s Program in Economics About the programme A growing need for knowledge in economics is a feature of an ever-evolving society [+]

Umeå University, Umeå School of Business and Economics Master´s Program in Economics About the programme A growing need for knowledge in economics is a feature of an ever-evolving society. The Master's Program in Economics seeks both to broaden the content of the undergraduate program and to provide students with essential tools for advanced studies and a career as an economist. The faculty members teaching and supervising in the Master's Program in Economics have strong standing in the international research community and good connections to authorities and firms. Students completing the Master's Program in Economics may apply to our Ph.D. program. Since the program is a research oriented program based on the PhD-program, many of the courses are transferable to the doctoral level. The program starting fall 2015 offer two new profiles in addition to the general profile: - Environmental- and resource economics - Health Economics Within the scope of CERE and with our partners at Swedish University of Agricultural Science we have created a profile in Environmental- and resource economics and together with the Faculty of Medicine we can offer a profile in Health Economics. If you chose to study the general profile you have good opportunities for exchange studies or internships in Sweden or abroad. No matter what your choice is, it will be a great experience and good to have on your CV! [-]

Master In Public Policy and Social Change (MAPS)

Collegio Carlo Alberto
Campus Full time 1 year October 2017 Italy Turin

MAPS is promoted by the University of Torino and held at Collegio Carlo Alberto. It is an Advanced Master's programme, open to students with a 4-years full-time Bachelor's degree, or a Bachelor plus Master's degree in social sciences (including economics and business administration), statistics, law, humanities and the like. MAPS trains highly motivated students in the processes of social change in European societies and... [+]

Masters in Environmental Economics. MAPS is promoted by the University of Torino and held at Collegio Carlo Alberto. It is an Advanced Master's programme, open to students with a 4-years full-time Bachelor's degree, or a Bachelor plus Master's degree in social sciences (including economics and business administration), statistics, law, humanities and the like. MAPS trains highly motivated students in the processes of social change in European societies and the public policies to meet these challenges at the national, European and global level. MAPS graduates receive an Advanced Master's Degree from the University of Torino. All courses are taught in English. MAPS aims to provide an in-depth understanding of: globalization trends and their consequences for public policy at national and European level; European governance and the politics of European policymaking welfare state challenges and developments in a global perspective; current socioeconomic and demographic change trends; the ongoing tensions between economic and social policies in Europe. MAPS graduates are able to: identify and analyze in a sophisticated way economic, social and demographic change and its consequences for European societies, the interdependencies between different policy areas and the interactions between different levels of governance; assess the outcomes of existing national and European public policies and envisage the regulatory instruments needed to meet ongoing challenges through innovative and evidence-based public policy; select and apply the most appropriate methods, frameworks and tools for social and policy analysis Why MAPS it offers deep understanding of the processes of economic and social change in European societies (including demographic and migration trends) in the context of globalization; it sharpens your capacity to analyze global and EU governance in its interchange with national systems of governance; it makes you focus on comparative and international political economy, looking at the interplay between economic, social and political processes; it provides you with thorough expertise in the institutions, actors, processes and content of policymaking in the European Union; it trains you to strong interdisciplinarity and an empirical approach it involves you in a highly profiled international research community at the Collegio, comprising a dynamic and cosmopolitan research and teaching environment it provides you with personalized tutoring throughout the whole year spent at the Collegio Scholarships A limited number of tuition waivers and scholarships are available. For students who apply for tuition waivers or scholarships application deadline is 15 May 2016. Afterwards, a rolling application will be kept open until 31 August 2016. Core courses Core Courses provide students with the empirical knowledge and interpretative skills necessary to understand and compare European institutions and governance, public and social policies, social changes, global and comparative political economy, and to build connections between democracy, welfare and capitalism. Topics in socioeconomic and demographic change This module analyzes changes within family and gender relations, demographic, migration and labour market trends, with a focus on public policies. Methods for social and policy analysis The Methods module provide students with the toolbox required to carry out policy oriented analysis, evaluation and research. Workshops Workshops address specific issues in contemporary labour markets, inequality and poverty, global and European economic and social policy, the future of welfare states in the global economy, the role of China in the new political economy, the political economy of East Asia. Master's Paper By the end of the academic year, students will be expected to write a final Master’s paper, complying to international scientific standards. Students who are interested in a more applied track, envisaging a career in the world of practice, may opt for doing an internship instead of writing a Master’s paper. This option must be clearly specified when applying to the programme. Seminars (Politics & Society) The programme is complemented by the seminar series in Politics and Society which brings at the Collegio world-class scholars and policymakers. Placement Both the Collegio and the University of Torino have a standing tradition in organizing career days, meetings with former Alumni and interviews to facilitate the direct contact between students and perspective employers. All MAPS students will benefit from such available services. Careers MAPS graduates will master the complexity of European and global social challenges. They may find employment as analysts, project officers or policymakers, in the private and public sector, in applied research, in social research institutions, public administrations, European and international institutions, NGOs. MAPS graduates are fully qualified for starting an academic career in any international academic institution. [-]

Master in in Resource Economics and Sustainable Development (RESD)

University of Bologna School of Economics, Management and Statistics
Campus Full time 2 years September 2017 Italy Rimini

RESD offers an excellent preparation in environmental economics, a critical understanding of the issues involved in sustainable development both from a theoretical and practical perspective and of the complex interactions between economic decisions, market forces, governmental policies and the environment. [+]

Are you interested in tackling the environmental challenges of tomorrow and the issues of sustainable development? We will offer you a solid preparation in environmental economics, a critical understanding of the issues involved in sustainable development both from a theoretical and practical perspective and of the complex interactions between economic decisions, market forces, governmental policies and the environment. Programme objectives RESD graduates will be able to critically evaluate the qualitative and quantitative implications of environmental policies and to autonomously produce, research and forecast concerning the evolution of markets for natural resources and to contribute to the design, production and marketing of products compatible with the sustainability of natural resources. RESD courses will provide an in-depth analysis of natural resources, taking into account the institutional setup of markets and the competitive strategies of firms. Overview The Paris Climate Agreement reached at COP21 last December 2015 reinforced the objective of keeping global temperature rise well below 2 C - and even further to 1.5 C above pre-industrial levels. According to the Copenhagen-based European Environment Agency (EEA), Europe has improved air and water quality, cut greenhouse gas emissions and improved waste recycling and waste management practices in recent years. But new, more courageous policies have to be implemented by the European Union to reach the ambitious goals of cutting greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% compared with 1990 levels by 2030, and by 80-95% by 2050. Moreover, by 2030 the European Union aims to increase energy efficiency by at least 27% and to increase the share of consumption from renewable energy sources to at least 27%.The European Commission has estimated that the long term shift to a greener, low-carbon economy by 2050 will require investments of an extra 270 billion euros a year (1.5 per cent of EU gross domestic product). These investment, together with national policies and investments aim at turning Europe into a low-carbon and highly energy efficient economy and will boost the economy, create jobs and strengthen the countries’ competitiveness. Environmental economists with a strong background in economics and management, able to interact with engineers and chemists, thus with an interdisciplinary educational background, will play a crucial role in this process. This is the profile of RESD graduates, who are able to employ tools and standard methods in economics and management to environmental and resources related issues. The main fields in which the environmental economist can be involved are the followings: Waste management will become an ever-important regulatory function at the local level. Agencies that manage waste both in Italy and in other European countries are facing increasing legislative and legal actions. Some of these agencies have sophisticated staff structures that employ environmental economists along with the usual unit of planners, and accountants. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) refers to companies that take responsibility for their impact on society. Empirical evidence suggests that CSR is increasingly important for firms’ competitiveness. In 2014 the European Parliament ruled that disclosure of information on environmental, labor and human rights impact becomes mandatory for large companies. This will further the diffusion of CSR practices and enlarge CSR units in companies. Environmental protection/natural resource economics, such as the introduction of environmentally friendly processes and practices within the local area to safeguard the economic sustainability of the businesses against rising expectations and the awareness of local inhabitants and companies for environmentally friendly behavior is commonly conducted by both, local governments and private enterprises; these activities necessitate of decision makers with the knowledge of decision making tools and environmental valuation methods. Environmental and eco-innovation consulting has become a lucrative field and today some of the larger firms are hiring environmental economists. In some cases an environmental economist can have an impact on the planning outcome and on project mitigation where some development features have an adverse environmental impact. Moreover, in several situations, eco-innovations and firms redesigning of their production process require a careful life-cycle assessment of products. Project management/Strategic planning specialist/Urban economist opportunities arise for environmental economists within some of international agencies such as World Bank and its subsidiaries; some other opportunities lie in far off units of the non-profit world (conservation organizations and NGOs). Food and agricultural economics is one area where sustainability issues of practices related to food safety, crop fertilization and food production are of strategic importance and environmental and resource economists will play a crucial role in this field. Energy economics and policy: An Energy Economist plays a crucial role in the area of energy- economy-environment. S/he provides authoritative and objective information on supply and use of energy and highlights the opportunities and risks in today’s energy world. Climate Change: Both industrialized and developing countries are increasingly focusing on the need for mitigation and adaptation strategies in relation to climate change. This course aims to present, discuss and analyze different perspectives on global environmental change in general, and climate change, in particular. It covers themes such as (1) the vulnerability of communities in different parts of the world to the combined impacts of environmental and non-environmental stress, (2) international, regional and national adaptation policies, (3) interlinkages between environmental change mitigation and adaptation. [-]

Master in Development Economics

University of Göttingen
Campus Full time 4 semesters October 2017 Germany Göttingen

What do we “develop” in our Master's programme in Development Economics? If “software” is the answer you were looking for, the app obviously led you to the wrong page. But if you want to know what economic and policy instruments can spur growth of a whole country, how to assess the impact of a policy measure, or most efficiently help developing countries reach adequate living standards or whether help helps at all. If you’d like to do your own research in this field one day or work with governments and aid agencies advising them on current development issues– this might be just the right study for you! [+]

Masters in Environmental Economics. Development Economics (M.A.) What do we “develop” in our Master's programme in Development Economics? If “software” is the answer you were looking for, the app obviously led you to the wrong page. But if you want to know what economic and policy instruments can spur growth of a whole country, how to assess the impact of a policy measure, or most efficiently help developing countries reach adequate living standards or whether help helps at all. If you’d like to do your own research in this field one day or work with governments and aid agencies advising them on current development issues– this might be just the right study for you! Study programme: Development Economics (M.A.) Degree: Master of Arts (M.A.) with an optional Double Degree Programme duration: 4 Semesters Beginning of programme: Winter and summer semester Admission: limited admission (application to the university) Admission requirements: Admission procedure Application: Application procedure Application deadline: April 1st to May 15th (for the winter semester) and October 1st to November 15th (for the summer semester) Language requirements: Good skills in English proven by e.g. TOEFL, IELTS (the programme is taught completely in English) General information The English-language Master of Arts in Development Economics is jointly offered by the Department of Economics (Faculty of Economic Sciences) and the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (Faculty of Agricultural Sciences). It builds on the successful Master of Arts in International Economics and the Master of Arts in Agribusiness; these programmes already had a strong specialisation in development issues. This research-oriented master's programme now offers a comprehensive four semester programme dedicated solely to the study of development economics issues. It leads to an internationally recognized and accredited Master's degree in Development Economics and offers research-oriented teaching that covers theoretical as well as empirical issues in economic development. Its wide course offerings, one semester stay abroad, master's thesis and specialisation in agricultural economics or economics will enable students to analyse current issues in development economics and prepare them for careers in research or policy. Programme structure The Master's Programme in Development Economics is four semesters in length during which 120 ECTS are required. It is divided into the course phase and the master's thesis. There are four modules (24 credits) of compulsory modules. Students can then specialise in agricultural economics or economics, each requiring a further 12 credits (two modules) of compulsory courses in the field of specialisation. Then students can choose another 36 credits (six modules) in development or agricultural economics from a wide variety of course offerings, of which one course (6 credits) has to be a seminar. Three modules (18 credits) can then be chosen freely also among other subjects and the master's thesis completes the programme. Students have to study abroad for one semester. This semester can be spent at a partner university of the Faculty of Economic Sciences of Göttingen University. International students are exempt from this requirement. Students may apply for the following partner university programmes: Exchange programme with the Stellenbosch University, South Africa, funded by the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) Exchange programme with universities in Latin and South America (Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Paraguay, El Salvador) Exchange programme with the Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies (SALISES), University of the West Indies Exchange programme with universities in Asia and Australia (for example China - funded by the DAAD, India, Indonesia, and South Korea) Double Degree Programme The Faculty of Economic Sciences is offering a double degree programme with the Stellenbosch University Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences (South Africa). In four semesters, specially qualified students can simultaneously earn the degree "M.A. in Development Economics" from the University of Göttingen and the "Master of Commerce in Economics" from the University of Stellenbosch. Occupational fields The degree in Development Economics will offer excellent career perspectives in a wide range of fields. Building on a track record of successful placement of students of our existing master's programmes, the opportunities for this programme include employment in: Governments and aid agencies working on development issues International organizations such as the World Bank, organisations of the UN system (e.g. ILO, FAO, UNIDO, UNDP, UNICEF, UNESCO, etc.), the OECD, EU, or regional development banks Policy research institutions such as those of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research as well as national and international development policy think tanks International business in multinational companies Further education at the Ph.D. level in Göttingen or abroad [-]

Master in Spatial, Transport and Environmental Economics (STREEM)

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Campus Full time 1 year September 2017 Netherlands Amsterdam

A Master’s in Spatial, Transport and Environmental Economics offers excellent career prospects. Many graduates find jobs as policy economists with the... [+]

Master in Spatial, Transport and Environmental Economics (STREEM)

 

The programme offers you the possibility to specialize in spatial, transport or environmental economics.Spatial Economics: analyse how various forces contribute to spatial dynamics and network development from a mainly microeconomic perspective; explore the use and further development of various techniques, methods and tools in this field.Transport Economics: focus on the causes and consequences of a growing demand for mobility from a microeconomic perspective; address problems such as congestion, reliability, safety and environmental externalities.Environmental Economics: focus on economic aspects of environmental problems and policy; combine scientific and policy expertise; address the need to integrate economics with insights from other disciplines, notably the environmental sciences. ... [-]


Master's Degree in Green Economy and Sustainability

University of Ferrara
Campus Full time 2 years October 2017 Italy Ferrara

Green Economy and Sustainability is an international degree for Italian and non-Italian students. Foreign students are welcome and exchange programmes like Erasmus+ are strongly encouraged and supported... [+]

Masters in Environmental Economics. Green Economy and Sustainability is an international degree for Italian and non-Italian students. Foreign students are welcome and exchange programmes like Erasmus+ are strongly encouraged and supported. Overview Green Economy and Sustainability is a 2nd cycle degree entirely taught in English forming graduates who are qualified to assume managerial or consultant positions in the Green Economy sector. The course provides students with interdisciplinary abilities in order to enable them to address issues related to green economy and sustainable development. The main topics of Green economy and sustainability are eco-innovation, green economy and sustainable development. Challenging eco-policy issues - from both national and international perspectives - are studied as well. Structure We offer dedicated teaching in the advanced core areas of environmental economics, environmental law, econometrics and research methods, with the opportunity to choose from an interesting portfolio of optional courses. Year 1 Theory of the firm and of the markets Industrial policy and sustainability Strategic control and performance management Organizational behavior and human resource management Governance and accounting in SMEs Quantitative methods for economics and statistics Econometric methods and models Year 2 Environmental and Intellectual property law Sustainability of public policy Eco-Innovations, firm’s performance and industrial dynamics Environmental economics and the green economy Economics of innovation Econometric techniques for policy evaluation Policies for sustainability and local development Development and emerging markets Financial public economics Project work Internship Chinese language German language French language Spanish language [-]

Master in Environmental and Food Economics (EFE)

University of Milan - Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods
Campus Full time 2 years October 2017 Italy Milan

The Environmental and Food Economics Master’s program aims at providing students with advanced skills and a complete training in economics of the environment and of the agri-food sector. [+]

Course Objectives and Structure The Environmental and Food Economics Master’s program aims at providing students with advanced skills and a complete training in economics of the environment and of the agri-food sector. The program provides advanced expertise in economics and business disciplines, quantitative methods, and specific theoretical and applied knowledge in environmental and resources economics and in the economics and management of the agri-food system. The aim is to provide advanced knowledge and instruments for sustainable economic development, natural resources management (water, soil, energy), innovation in the agri-food sector, internationalisation of agri-food companies, food security and rural development, and policy analysis in related fields. In the first year, after key courses in mathematics and econometrics, the master proposes a balanced organization between common core teaching in the areas of business (Accounting, Environmental management), economics (Advanced microeconomics, Environmental economics) and agri-food economics (Food economics, International agri-food markets and policy). During the second year, students might choose to specialize further in one of the two fields: Environmental and Energy Economics or Economics and Management of the Agri-food System. Entry Requirements Applicants must have a bachelor’s degree in economics, environmental science, agricultural and food science, or related fields. A minimum background in mathematics, economics and statistics is required. Candidates lacking this background are invited to follow crash courses that will be held starting from the last week of August. Fluency in spoken and written English is also required. All students who meet the above requirements are admitted to an interview. The interview, done remotely via electronic devices if necessary, is aimed at verifying the motivations of the candidates, the above-mentioned skills and the knowledge of English language. Career Prospects The Environment and Energy Economics curriculum is more oriented to the world of institutions (public and private), with job opportunities in national, EU, and international institutions, like energy authorities, OECD, European Commission, as well as public and private research organisations and research departments of large national and multinational companies. The Economics and Management of the Agrifood System curriculum is more oriented to private companies with job opportunities in agri-food firms (small and medium enterprises, multinationals, retailers) as well as in national, EU, and international institutions that carry out research on agrifood policies and rural development issues, like FAO, World Bank, OECD, and the European Commission. Study Plan Compulsory learning activities I YEAR Advanced microeconomics Economics and politics of the agrifood sector Agrifood economics International agrifood markets and policies Environmental accounting and management Accounting Environmental management Environmental and natural resource economics Mathematics for economics Statistics and econometrics II YEAR Economic history Environmental and food law Curriculum: Environmental and energy economics Economics of growth and sustainability Energy economics Global and climate change economics Curriculum: Economics and management of the agri-food system Food chain in the global market Food marketing and consumer behavior Food security and rural development Elective activities common to both curriculum 9 ECTS for elective activities 3 ECTS for stage and internship 21 ECTS Final exam [-]